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Jew Whites & White's Tribal & Ice Age Heritage.9/6/2024

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The Scythians were whites.

Scythians - Rise and Fall of the Original Horselords DOCUMENTARY

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Its a shame that like many of the nomadic cultures they barely wrote about their own histories, its lucky for us that they were close to the Greeks who loved writing things down.

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The Scythian tribe like Sacae & Massagetae that migrated to India have descendants in JAT tribe of Northern India & Pakistan. They still specialize in Agriculture & Animal husbandry and never give up the virtue of warrior as an example they are just 2% of Indian population but have largest number in Indian Army and have their own regiment in Army named after them as JAT Regiment.

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Before the Mongols, Turks, and Huns, the Scythians ruled the steppes.
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Thank you for mentioning the archeological evidence of Scythian women's participation in warfare, as I feel it is often overlooked. To anyone wanting to know more, I recommend Adrienne Mayor's book The Amazons.


Hey there everyone ! In my province Ardabil theres a subdivided part named Meshkin shahr in which these famous burial grounds and the sythian treasures used to be frequent to find ! Its trully amazing to see all these 4000 years old artifacts of intelligent people that used to thrive on the same lands that now we inhabit . The thing is untill recently genocial acts on persian regions are so little that certainly high percentage of those chad nomadic genes are still to be found in nearby cacuses region . Those slavs were soon to eradicate them in the western side of tge caspian sea i bet ...


I'm glad you guys touched on language! Yep, the last modern remnant of the Scythian language(s) is indeed the modern Ossetian language of the Caucasus. It is spoken in the Russian republic of North Ossetia-Alania, and just over the Caucasus crest to the south in the breakaway South Ossetia region of Georgia. A related linguistic relic is the minority Yaghnobi language of parts of modern Tajikistan. It is the last surviving form of the ancient and medieval Bactrian and Sogdian languages, including the language of the Khwarazmian Empire.


FYI: the museums in Odesa, Sevastopol, and Simpheropol (but especially the former) have outstanding collections of Scythian gold objects much of it derived from kurgan burials. The materials in Odesa are in fact dazzling.
An interesting detail about the Scythians that wasn't mentioned is that they might be the source of Greek myths about the Amazons. Modern archaeological excavations of Scythian burial mounds have found large numbers of women that were buried with weapons like the men, and in their bones evidence of war wounds & long lives spent in the saddle.
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Again a golden documentary by the best channel on YouTube. Many Turks believe Scythians are among their ancestors. These exciting videos will open everyone's eyes and hopefully drive people to make much more research. Thank you very much guys!!
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Were Ancient Europeans in Pre-Columbian America?

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vanish into the sea

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Guided tour through the exhibition 'Doggerland' at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, Leiden

Curator Luc Amkreutz guides you through the exhibition ‘Doggerland – Lost World in the North Sea' at the Rijksmuseum van Oudheden (Leiden, the Netherlands). He takes you on a trip through time of a million years and shows you the highlights of this exhibition
. The Doggerland exhibition presents a lost prehistoric world in the North Sea: Doggerland. You will learn about the prehistoric inhabitants of this special region, and how they survived in a landscape and climate that was constantly changing.


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Stone shaver

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Red Dear

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Did Civilisation Begin At Karahan Tepe? - Humanity before Göbekli Tepe // Prehistory Documentary

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"Black cat superstition in Western culture dates back to Ancient Greece. According to Greek mythology, Zeus’s wife Hera once transformed her servant, Galinthias, into a black cat as punishment for impeding the birth of Hercules. Galinthias went on to become an assistant to Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft, and black cats have had unique meanings in various cultures ever since.". As a Greek you owe that poor cat reparations for centuries of mistrust of black cats. I think it wants a new home and some Fanct Feast in reparations.




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 The Strange Rituals of Siberian Bear Cults



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The Black Sea was a fresh water lake before the end of Ice Age in Europe.

The Extraordinary Hunt For Preserved Ancient Shipwrecks From Civilizations Long Lost | Timeline

 Four years in the making, this two-part television series follows the world’s largest Maritime Archaeological Expedition in exploring how the Black Sea formed after the last ice age. Could it have been the origin of Noah’s flood?

Led by charismatic chief scientist Jon Adams, the team send space aged remote survey vehicles 2 kilometres underwater to scan the seabed. In seeking geological clues, they quickly make remarkable finds: over 70 shipwrecks almost perfectly preserved in the chilly, oxygen-depleted water of this near landlocked sea. The films reveal extraordinary ships from the Ottoman, Byzantine, Roman and Greek civilisations.

They include discoveries that are unique worldwide: the most perfectly preserved Roman vessel ever and the only preserved Greek warship known. The series witnesses the highs and lows of the handpicked international team of world-class scientists, on their remarkable journey into the past. Their adventures at sea include extreme dives to depths of 100m, tense recovery operations struggling to salvage amphora from Roman ships and costly equipment failures that threaten their entire operation.

Discover the past on History Hit with ad-free exclusive podcasts and documentaries released weekly presented by world renowned historians Dan Snow, Suzannah Lipscomb, Matt Lewis and more.



If it was a slow fill over thousands of years, you would have evidence of the lake shore beach the entire way to the modern shore not just 56km off the modern shore, unless there was a catastrophic flood from the Mediterranean, or global flood.
0:48: Exploring ancient shipwrecks in the Black Sea to uncover lost civilizations and maritime history.
10:38: Scientific expedition uncovers evidence of prehistoric lake before Black Sea flooding.
17:07: Cutting-edge technology aids in search for ancient shipwrecks in the Black Sea.
25:02: Uncovering well-preserved ancient shipwrecks in the Black Sea through delicate exploration.
33:43: Innovative methods used to retrieve ancient shipwreck artifacts with precision and caution.
43:50: Discovery of an ancient Greek shipwreck with a unique curved rudder different from Roman style.
52:06: Discovery of remarkably preserved 2,000-year-old shipwreck in the Black Sea. Tammy AI: Get video info faster & better




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44,000 Year Old Neanderthal Mammoth Bone Shelter

We are going to take a look at the oldest Mammoth Bone shelter, created around 44,000 by Neanderthals. This would be the oldest use of mammoth bones as building material, and this would mean that Neanderthals were the very first to create these and not Homo sapiens, us modern humans. As the oldest mammoth bone shelters discovered by archaeologists that were created by Homo sapiens date to 25,000 years ago.



Hey there, a tiny additional piece of information: Neanderthals never developed bows and arrows, their tool kits indicate that they created many cutting and working tools, but not small arrow heads. They instead exclusively used thrusting or throwing spears and not bows and arrows, or even atlatls and darts.


It's interesting. In junior college, we were introduced to Neanderthal as H. sapiens neanderthalensis. Later, as I worked on my degree, the academic fashion shifted to insisting that Neanderthal was its own species. And it did seem to be a mainly a matter of academic fashion rather than a matter of sound biological reasoning. Then it was discovered that our own ancestors had apparently partied with Neanderthals, at least so says the DNA. Which arguably suggests that the original designation as a subspecies still makes sense. So, now, we see that in the very same region where circular mammoth bone structures are known from the Upper Paleolithic, presumably H.s.s. sites, we now see earlier Terminal Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals using the same tactic for constructing whatever they were constructing. AND in this same general region (Western Asia and Eastern Europe) Homo sapiens, Neanderthal, and Denisovans also shared DNA. My personal feeling is that there should be no surprise. Neanderthals were people, with the ability to plan and create, just as their surviving descendants (we) have.

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Neanderthal napping process graphics showing top right hand corner.


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I think that like most of our pre sedentary ancestors, they used what they had to hand to build what they needed. Bones got recycled, hides became dwelling covers as well as clothing, blankets, etc. The Neanderthal were really good at this, as were other upright walking beings defined as homo whatever. I'm quite proud to acknowledge them as my distant ancestors, along with everyone else that walked the road to get to me.


Am I surprised that Neanderthal did this? Not at all. I think we sell them short.
Your point about the location of the site is significant. But maybe not be correct. The adjacent river and forest may not have been there 44,000 years ago, as they are today. One spin off from our fascination with climate today is a better understanding of climate in the past. With the glaciation still in effect 44,000 years ago forests were scarce as was wood in general. Some speculate that this is why bone was used in this way. I’m not up on the details of that river in Moldova at the site, but I’d wager it was neither as broad or as deep as today. It might not even be in the same place. That said something made the site attractive for long term habitation. If nothing else I was a good hunting ground. Nobody is going to pack large bones any distance just to make a camp.
As to selective hunting. All modern hunters do it. In some cases by law. And all native hunting cultures studied first hand do it by preference. So why not Neanderthal, who arguably were master hunters. The apex predators of their time.
Put aside your preconception of gender. When I used to hunt I’d seek a two year old doe. Not a scrawny little yearling buck. Not a mature old 3+ die, or a tough old buck. The older animals get a bit gamy tasting, especially when breeding. The young ones are simply small. But the 2-3 year old doe is always tender. If I as a hobby hunter can discern that surely the master hunters of the past could.


Once a hide dries, it becomes very hard and stiff. So all they needed was a frame to drape it over. A wooly mammoth hide harvested in the winter would have had really good insulating properties, assuming they shed in the summer like other mammals. They probably laid the hide over a frame, let it freeze to get stiff, then let it dry over time. Additional hides stacked on top would have made a very warm shelter. Large bones may have been preferred so the hides could be tied down and prevent the wind from blowing them away.
Very interesting video. Given the relative paucity of caves in Europe habitable by humans (and free of bears and other potential renters) it makes sense to see that Neanderthals used the material at hand to make their own simple shelters (or were they homes?). As for your video on Neanderthals, we are patient subscribers who prefer quality over speed. Do it right rather than do it now.

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The Earth 500,000 Years Ago | 500,000 Subscribers Special

 What was our planet like 500,000 years ago? What sorts of animals were around? What was the climate and geography like? And which human species were alive?


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Life in the time of CRO-MAGNON - Homo Sapiens - Prehistory Documentary - MG


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Whites had phallus fertility festivals.

Women in Nagaoka, Japan ride a giant wooden phallus as part of the Hodare Festival

 Women in Nagaoka, Japan celebrate the Hodare Festival by riding a large wooden phallus, which is believed to bring fertility and marital bliss. Participants of the festival were seen praying to and touching the phallic symbol, seeking prosperity in their marriages.



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How Dogs (Eventually) Became Our Best Friends

 We’re still figuring out the details, but most scientists agree that it took thousands of years of interactions to develop our deep bond with dogs. When did they first become domesticated? Where did this happen? And what did the process look like, in terms of genetics and anatomy?

Wealthy Ancient Romans used to construct entire mausoleums for their deceased pets, complete with funerary statues, tombstones, and epigraphs. One well preserved tomb at Herculaneum reads: “I am in tears, while carrying you to your last resting place as much as I rejoiced when bringing you home in my own hands fifteen years ago." Another such inscription reads: “My eyes were wet with tears, our little dog, when I carried you (to the grave)... So, Patricus, never again shall you give me a thousand kisses. Never again will you be contentedly in my lap. In sadness have I buried you, as you deserve, In a resting place of marble, I have placed you for all time by the side of my shade. In your qualities, sagacious you were, like a human being. Ah! What a loved companion we have lost” If that doesn’t tear your heart apart, I don’t know what will. Humans and dogs have a relationship unlike any other two animals. We were made for each other to be best friends. Quite literally in the case of the dog lol

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Wealthy Ancient Romans used to construct entire mausoleums for their deceased pets, complete with funerary statues, tombstones, and epigraphs. One well preserved tomb at Herculaneum reads: “I am in tears, while carrying you to your last resting place as much as I rejoiced when bringing you home in my own hands fifteen years ago.
" Another such inscription reads: “My eyes were wet with tears, our little dog, when I carried you (to the grave)... So, Patricus, never again shall you give me a thousand kisses. Never again will you be contentedly in my lap. In sadness have I buried you, as you deserve, In a resting place of marble, I have placed you for all time by the side of my shade. In your qualities, sagacious you were, like a human being. Ah! What a loved companion we have lost”
If that doesn’t tear your heart apart, I don’t know what will.
Humans and dogs have a relationship unlike any other two animals. We were made for each other to be best friends. Quite literally in the case of the dog lol


If anyone hasn't seen it, there is a documentary by a fantastic Scottish naturalist called Gordon Buchanan who lived for three months on an island where there are wild Arctic Wolves. He would allow some interaction and once he learned not to fear for his safety (completely natural although wolf attacks on humans are extremely rare) he allowed one to approach him, who sniffed around, looked at him and was just curious. He says at that moment "I think I can see, how this fearsome predator, eventually became, man's best friend". These wolves were wild, and the interactions over those three months on this island is probably extremely similar to how it first happened between wolves and humans when they met, and instantly knew they shared "something" in common and would soon work, live, love and die together for thousands of years until this very day. Dogs keep us safe, they keep our pets safe and our homes safe, they work for us, fetch things, save our lives and live with us. Dogs are amazing... even though I own a cat (which works better for my circumstances in life).


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Comment: Early writing in Europe.

Europe's First Civilization: the Vinča Culture



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The way those "idols" were arrayed on their platform, they definitely look like game pieces. 3 groups of six, 3 groups of 3, all with an equal amount of similarly shaped pieces per like-numbered group, and a single group with 8. Fascinating look and leaves a strong impression of a chess-like game.

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Comment: Early writing in Europe.


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Hello Dan! Greetings from Sibiu (Romania)! Tărtăria-Gura Luncii, Alba county ( the infamous incised clay tablets, with symbols, were discovered here in 1961-the autumn campaign, by prof. Nicolae Vlassa-long story...), is indeed a complex prehistoric archaeological site (in recent studies there were identified elements of fortifications-ditches and palisade postholes-Luca 2016, „Tărtăria Rediviva”). Now, I'm studying for a master's degree at „Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu (Department of History and Heritage Studies). The main subject of my Bachelor Thesis was about lithic industry (polished/ground and knapped stone tools) from Tărtăria. In 2021 and 2022 (summer campaigns), I have taken part in archaeological excavations here and I can assure all of you that, Vinča female clay figurines, are very THICC ;)!!! I'm pleased to see, that there is interest for the complex Neo-Eneolithic cultures in this part of Europe! Your high-quality documentaries contributed a lot to my passion for prehistory, so keep up the good work.

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Danube Script from Old Europe 5000 - 3500 BC

 Harald Haarmann (world's leading expert on scripts and languages) states that the Danube script is the oldest known writing in the world. Much older than Mesopotamian writing. The Danube culture was an egalitarian civilization which existed 8000 years ago in Eastern Europe (Romania, Bulgaria, Moldavia .....) and is indeed the cradle of civilization, not the Middle East.


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Stunning Prehistoric European Artifacts Of Car Like Object

 Several fascinating ancient artifacts offer excellent evidence our ancestors were familiar with the wheel and produced small objects similar to our modern cars

. However, there are also a number of very interesting artifacts showing very curious car-like models. One of them was discovered by curator of the National Museum in Hungary F. Romer. It is a car-like object with a primitive deity depicted on it.

Many car-like ancient objects can also be traced to the Danube Valley civilization, a mysterious European culture, which left a legacy in form of valuable artifacts covered with an unknown, never successfully deciphered script. These artifacts have been excavated from sites in south-east Europe. The culture that flourished from about 6000 BC to 3000 BC, was named Vinca-Tordos Culture of Serbia and western Romania and derived its name from the village of Vinca located on the banks of Danube river, only 14 km downstream from Belgrade. Near the village of Dupljaja in the vicinity of Bela Crkva, Serbia 95 km from Belgrade and 35 km from Vršac, there are remains of a prehistoric settlement originating from the Middle Bronze Age. At this place archaeologists discovered two carts made of terracotta. Sitting inside the carts are bird-shaped humanoids. The artifacts are kept at the National Museum in Belgrade. It is clear that our ancestors were much more advanced than it is commonly believed.


March Of The Titans


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The origin of cheese: European prehistoric farmers quickly added cheese to their diet 7,500 years

 Researchers on Wednesday said they found the earliest known chemical evidence of cheese-making, based on the analysis of milk-fat residues in pottery dating back about 7,200 years. Not only did cheese provide a key source of nutrition for prehistoric Europeans, it also allowed them a way to store milk long-term.


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How Did Ancient Rome Begin? | Ancient Rome Documentary

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 This video is a special Epilogue to Chapter 2 of our series. It covers the origins of Rome, from a small Latin settlement, to the Roman Kingdom under its Seven Legendary Kings. It then goes through the early Roman Republic until the Sack of Rome and its rebirth in the early 300s BCE.

The Roman Kingdom (also referred to as the Roman monarchy, or the regal period of ancient Rome) was the earliest period of Roman history when the city and its territory were ruled by kings. According to oral accounts, the Roman Kingdom began with the city's founding c. 753 BC, with settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings and the establishment of the Republic c. 509 BC.

The Roman Republic was a state of the classical Roman civilization, run through public representation of the Roman people. Beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom (traditionally dated to 509 BC) and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire, Rome's control rapidly expanded during this period—from the city's immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean world.

Roman society under the Republic was primarily a cultural mix of Latin and Etruscan societies, as well as of Sabine, Oscan, and Greek cultural elements, which is especially visible in the Roman Pantheon. Its political organization developed, at around the same time as direct democracy in Ancient Greece, with collective and annual magistracies, overseen by a senate The top magistrates were the two consuls, who had an extensive range of executive, legislative, judicial, military, and religious powers. Even though a small number of powerful families (called gentes) monopolised the main magistracies, the Roman Republic is generally considered one of the earliest examples of representative democracy. Roman institutions underwent considerable changes throughout the Republic to adapt to the difficulties it faced, such as the creation of promagistracies to rule its conquered provinces, or the composition of the senate.

Unlike the Pax Romana of the Roman Empire, the Republic was in a state of quasi-perpetual war throughout its existence. Its first enemies were its Latin and Etruscan neighbours as well as the Gauls, who even sacked the city in 387 BC. The Republic nonetheless demonstrated extreme resilience and always managed to overcome its losses, however catastrophic.

Little is certain about the kingdom's history as no records and few inscriptions from the time of the kings survive. The accounts of this period written during the Republic and the Empire are thought largely to be based on oral tradition.


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  How was Rome founded? - History of the Roman Empire - Part 1

"The story of the founding of Rome it’s a tale that was often told by the Romans as the earliest history of their ancient city. As the legend goes… Rome was founded on April 21, 753 BC by twin brothers, Romulus and Remus. According to tradition, the boys were the sons of Rhea Silvia, a daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa, who was impregnated by the god of war, Mars…"



A Neanderthal Odyssey: Everything We Know about the Neanderthals

Comment: Some light skin Neanderthal evolves in to White Europeans.

Billions of people today have Neanderthal DNA; which means that" they are us". They were absorbed into the population and were just another people group. In fact, their facial structures are very similar to White Europeans.

I actually have 60% more Neanderthal DNA than the average person at a 2% while the rest is Homosapian. This ought to be interesting while that may explain why I actually once had a beard that looked like a Neanderthal´s beard.

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While I personally have a very standard human skull, there's a lot of people in the Netherlands who have many of the typical Neanderthal characteristics. Like an elongated skull, a very blocky build, big ridge, deep eyes. If I were to guess a lot of Northern Europeans are a lot more Neanderthal than we realize. To say we are only 2% Neanderthal and 98% may be true for all of Europe. But if you would narrow it down to certain people I bet you could easily find numbers as high as 10% or even 20%. And I've even seen a person who wouldn't surprise me if he was more Neanderthal than Sapien. He's a sheep herder, probably because he doesn't like society so much.



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White people (White Europeans) during the Ice Age in Europe.

Europeans (Whites) were not black in the past. In spite of all this cheddar man crap, ancient European (Whites) people would look much like today. DNA shows ancient Egyptians are about the same as today. Same with a lot of people in the British Isles and Europe.


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white jew vrace bnm

The following information is to give evidence that the White European Caucasians (White People) who live in the British Isles across to Russia today including the rest of Europe are indigenous to those regions and they have been there for thousands of years.  

It is important to note that some White Jews may view themselves differently than whites. However, for centuries, Jews considered themselves to be white, which is equivalent to being European. In light of the historical persecution faced by both Jews and whites, it is crucial to avoid division and recognize that White Jews and whites share a common ancestry and European heritage.

This article aims to remind White Jews that Israel is their religious homeland and Europe is their racial homeland, and that they are indigenous to Europe along with other whites, forming a brotherhood and sisterhood. It is crucial to acknowledge the rich history of  White Jews, including their Ice Age ancestry, before their conversion to Judaism.

Our ancient European Caucasian ancestors(white &  white Jews ) were transient beings who migrated cross the lands that make up Europe and the British Isles and they are viewed by historians and the scientific community as one people.  It matters not what your religion or passport says; Christianity, Judaism, Scandinavia, Russia, France – none of these religions or nationalities existed in the original settlements of human beings in Europe.

White people (White Europeans) who live in the United States, Canada, South America, Israel, Australia, and South Africa are indigenous to Europe and should have the right of return to live in their ancient homeland.

Shlomo Sand Headshot The Inventions of the Jewish People. 

Israeli Professor Shlomo Sand is challenging notions of a Jewish people quoted in his new book, "those who claim to be all of the Jewish people cannot claim a blood connection with the original Jewish inhabitants of the holy land, but converts along the way."

Related Video:

Shlomo Sand - The invention of the Jewish People 

Israelis: Was your family here before 1948?

Arab Israelis: Where do you come from?

Jewish language

"The modern Hebrew language being a European hybrid......also is known to have copied Arabic words and Arabic roots to make up new "Hebrew" neologisms and calques."

There is scholarly view that goes beyond what even the famous linguist Ghil'ad Zuckerman States that:

 "modern Hebrew" is simply a form of Yiddish (Yiddish be an Indo-European Language) with some new made-up "Hebrew" neologism (often from Arabic) sprinkled in."

The majority of Jews did not come from Israel. They are European Caucasians with the majority from Europe, and some came from the Middle East or the Khazar tribes in Khazaria area in Southern Russia.  Many Jews have blue eyes and blonde hair, who's origins originated in Europe.

It is estimated that the majority of Jews in western countries are actually white Europeans and many have blue eyes, blonde hair and European facial features which only originated from cold climates.  Regardless of this most Jews are indoctrinated from birth into believing that they are a distinct race separate from their European brothers and sisters.  It is a belief that was started by the Globalist and anti-Semitic Zionists, ie. that they are different to all others and while there is a classical "Jewish" look held by some Jews due to the strong breeding within only Jewish families, most people of Jewish descent look no different to Europeans. The Japanese are the same race as Chinese and were indoctrinated from birth and during the Second World War, that they were different from the Chinese. This attitude resulted in the systemic killing and eradication of many innocent Chinese civilians and we need to ensure that this attitude of difference is stopped as it is now in the process of destroying Europe and the Europeans.  

Many white Europeans have been converted to the Jewish faith over the centuries and it is worth remembering that during the time of the ice age there were no Jews anywhere on earth.  The Jewish belief and faith has simply been invented over the centuries and used as a kind of class warfare against other groups to gain money and power by a small group.

 Clearly these Israelis from European backgrounds are not Semites. It's written all over their faces.

Where are Ashkenazi Jews from? Their Origins May Surprise You

 "It appears that the majority of the European converts to Judaism during the early years of the Diaspora were women. That helps explain why the Ashkenazim can trace their female lineage to southern and western Europe."

DNA Tests Cannot Be Trusted

The Mystery of European Hair, Eye, and Skin Color

White European and West Eurasians Videos

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Woolly Mammoth || Can We See Them Roaming On This Earth Again ?






What Race are you?

White European Racial Pride.  What race are You?


White European Caucasian Indigenous History and paintings

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Did The Earth Totally Freeze For 100 Million Years?

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cave painting lascaux

Picture on the right was painted in Lascaux cave in Southern France over 15,000 years ago by Ice Age white Europeans (White people).  The Lascaux complex contains some of the most remarkable Palaeolithic cave paintings in the world.  One of our organization's goals is to unite European Caucasians worldwide by teaching them about our ancestors before the advent of today's major religions – Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

Today, White people are scattered all over the world and many no longer identify themselves with their homeland Europe,  which must change.  We must begin to truly think of the nations of Europe as sacred ground; it is the land and the blood of our ancestors going back thousands of years, many of whom fought to keep it safe for us, their descendants.  We need to do our part now in order to pass it on, intact to our future generations.

White people should be proud of their ancestors who have done many wondrous things including those who painted in caves and on cliffs in Europe.

The photo of the skull (pictured left) was taken at the British Museum, London, and is the oldest of human fossils found outside Africa from Georgia in Southern Russia, Eastern Europe as being 1.8 million years old.  People have been living in the regions we call Europe and the Middle East along with Central Asia for longer than many people realize.

If you walked behind the owner of this skull when he was alive and he was dressed in a modern outfit, you would think that he was just another human being until you looked at his face.  Then you would notice that he was slightly different, based on the brow ridge and facial features.

It is worth remembering that the average height of Homo erectus was 6 ft., they did not walk like monkeys. They walked around like human beings do today.  Homo erectus based on recent research lived between 1.8 million years – 100,000 years ago.

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European researchers claim earliest humans evolved in Europe

 European researchers stand by their study that the earliest humans evolved in Europe and not in Africa. But local scientists dispute the claims saying no reliable evidence has been provided to support that view.

I've actually seen people call this 'hate-speech', just because they don't agree with it.
After they found those teeth in Germany that are several million years older than anything from be Africa I don't see how any scientist that is unbiased can say all human ancestors started in Africa. People need to keep an open mind instead of pushing an agenda.
It's obvious because we are not the same. We are all human but we aren't the same types of human in the human race. Sort of like different breeds.
If we came out of Africa we would share the same archaic DNA as the Africans do
When scientists argue, you know something horribly wrong is going on
They will never tell the truth.we are the cattle to be mixed and culled as needed.human farming and they want there herds mixed
@SABC - I have a question. Why is it that when interracial couples mix together this happens?
White Caucasian + Asian = Caucasian looking child,
Black + White Caucasian = Black child,
Asian + Black = Asian looking child,
Native American + Native American = Asian looking child,
Native American + Black = Asian looking child with dark complexions.
I'm curious why because I've observed this a lot and have personal experience with it. I'm thinking that maybe there are two places of origin, even more and that all humans developed around about the same time but in different locations? I mean could this theory even be a possibility? Could this be the reason why there is no missing link yet! since there would have have to be multiple missing links right?
no one comes from blacks.
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Question, If the footprints are 6mill years old and they were found in Crete. Does this mean that the Origin of mankind was NOT in Africa 200.000 years ago??
one foot print
5 million years ago was the Messinian Salinity Crisis when the Mediterranean dried up and animals were able to walk to the island of Crete.
'pre-human' footprints found in village of Trachilos, Crete
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I thought two experts who studied primate footprints claimed that these weren't footprints at all, and definitely not belonging to hominids even through the small possibility that they were footprints?
They were pre-humans walking on their toes....probably wading. In chest deep water. Scientists should always get seasoned trackers to read footprints. i have studied photos of all these prints...and one or two of them are fully human-shaped (Gierlinski et al 2018).
If you even suggest that humanities story is more complicated than the Afro-hominid migration out of Africa, you’re labeled a pseudo scientist or worse some kind of racist.
Dogma has no place in science, sadly it's very prevalent even now. Leave dogma to religion, science is where the old should be replaced by the new as evidence, understanding and knowledge increases. The whole 'out of africa' thing is a good working hypothesis based on what evidence there was, but it should never be carved in stone when we are constantly finding new evidence, which apparently is very Inconvenient to the dogmatic. It should not matter whether this new evidence supports one hypothesis or another, science doesn't care about your politics, agendas or biases, sadly the so-called scientific community is full of all three. If your hypothesis isn't supported by the evidence, it's probably wrong.
Colin Barras wrote in in New Scientist: “The association of fossil remains with stone tools at the new site is important, says Eudald Carbonell at the Rovira i Virgili University in Tarragona, Spain, who led the research team. “We have human remains, stone tools and bones with cut marks,” he says. “It’s all very consistent with occupation here 1.1 million years ago.” Carbonell says the fragmentary remains have been tentatively assigned to the species Homo antecessor, also known from 800,000 year-old remains at Gran Dolina in Spain and Ceprano in Italy. “Our hypothesis is that antecessor is derived from Homo georgicus, found at Dmanisi, Georgia, in 1.8 million year-old deposits,” he says. Chris Stringer, a palaeoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London, UK,, who was not involved with the study, is more cautious. “Even if antecessor is a valid species, we don’t know where it originated,” he says. \*\

Early Pleistocene human mandible from Sima del Elefante ...

We present a detailed morphological comparative study of the hominin mandible ATE9-1 recovered in 2007 from the Sima del Elefante cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, northern Spain. Paleomagnetic analyses, biostratigraphical studies, and quantitative data obtained through nuclide cosmogenic methods, place this specimen in the Early Pleistocene (1.2-1.3 Ma). This finding, together with ...

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The Petralona Human Skull That Challenges the 'Out of Africa' Theory



The skull (pictured right), discovered in Northern Greece has the potential to change what we know

about human evolution.  This skull, known as the Petralona Skull was found in 1959 embedded in a wall and was given to the University of Thessaloniki from the Petralona community with the conditions that after examination it would be put on public display by the museum with information about the skull that was discovered. 

Petralona skullThe ‘Petralona man’, as it has since been called, was found to be 700,000 years old, making it the oldest human Europeoid (presenting European traits), of that age ever discovered in Europe. The academic responsible for researching the cave and skull, Dr. Poulianos, argues that this hominid evolved separately in Europe and was not an ancestor of a species that came out of Africa.

Independent researchers tried to dismiss these findings, arguing that the skull was only 50,000 years old and was indeed an ancestor that came from Africa. Then only a decade later in 1971, research from the US was published backing up the findings that the skull was indeed 700,000 years old.  This case was made on the analysis of the cave’s stratigraphy and the sediment in which the skull was embedded.  Further research in the cave discovered isolated teeth and two pre-human skeletons dating back 800,000 years, as well as other fossils of various species.

Today, most academics who have analyzed the Petralona remains say that the cranium belongs to an archaic hominid distinguished from Homo erectus, and from both the classic Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans, but showing characteristics of all those species and presenting strong European traits.  A skull dating back 700,000 years ago which is either Homo sapien or part Homo sapien is in direct conflict with the 'Out of Africa' theory of human evolution.  Dr. Poulianos’ findings contradicted conventional views regarding human evolution, as a result his research was suppressed.  He and his team have been denied further access to the cave to complete their research and study, and the whereabouts of the skull is now unknown.  

Petralona cave

Dmanisi Skull 5It is interesting to note that there has been completely separate research completed and published in the last 5 years which also shows evidence that Homo erectus was found in Eurasia as far back as 1.8 million years ago. The discovery of the Dmanisi Skull 5 (pictured left) has certainly caused a lot of discussion in the paleontological world with new theories being that Homo erectus possibly evolved in Eurasia, and then migrated into Africa considering the dates.

New discovery suggests Homo erectus originated from Asia

"How "African" was the early human dispersal out of Africa?"

Skull discovery sheds light on human species

Bacteria found in Otzi the iceman could turn the Out of Africa theory on ... Video for otzi stumps ' out of africa' theory





The table below shows the different glacial and interglacial periods as there were actually more than one..

  Ice Age Britain


750,000 – 350,000 Cromerian Interglacial Warm
350,000 – 250,000 Anglian Glacial Cold
250,000 – 200,000 Hoxnian Interglacial Warm
200,000 – 125,000 Wolstonian Glacial Cold
125,000 – 72,000 Ipswichian Interglacial Warm
72,000 – 12,000 Devensian Glacial Cold


During the cold stages, the sea levels would be much lower than today, by up to 120 metres. Today, we can see the remains of the cold stages through fossilised tree trunks, submerged in today's seawater but visible at extremely low tides. During the lower sea levels animals and man could walk freely towards Europe. Amazing remains of Ice Age beasts were unearthed from Kents Cavern during the Victorian period.


As the planet's temperature rose, the ice sheets melted and the sea levels began to rise once again, closing off the established links to Europe. Plant life would flourish and warm weather animals began to appear, in Joint Mitnor Cave just 20 miles from Kents Cavern. Remains of straight tusked elephants, bison and even hippopotamus were found.


Hippos & mammoths in Worcestershire?

  • 30th October 2018

The Ice Age was not always cold: hippos once wallowed in Worcestershire’s warm pools. Over the last 2.5 million years – a period we call ‘The Ice Age’ and known geologically as the Quaternary – the climate fluctuated between icy glacials and warmer interglacials. As temperatures rose species were able to expand into new areas, before being pushed back further south as the climate turned icy.

During warm interglacials, herds of horses, bison and aurochs would have roamed the open grasslands of Britain. Beavers and dolphins swam in our rivers; at the height of the Hoxnian Interglacial (around 400,000 years ago) oak forests were home to deer and macaque monkeys. The gentler climate meant that early humans gradually returned to Britain and the stone tools that they left behind have been found at places like Swanscombe in Kent and Boxgrove in West Sussex.

Lions, bears, wolves and these early humans would have hunted large animals like rhinoceros and the straight tusked elephant. Straight tusked elephants are now extinct but they were once the largest Ice Age animal of all, twice as large as elephants today and even bigger than a mammoth. They could grow to four metres in height and ten tonnes in weight and their straight tusks could grow to over three metres in length.

Around 130,000 – 115,000 years ago, a particularly warm interglacial allowed tropical species to live in Britain. Hippopotamus bones have been found in Worcestershire at Eckington, Bengeworth and Stourbridge. Spotted hyenas, lions and narrow-nosed rhinoceros are also known to have lived in Britain during this time.




"Researchers estimate the prints are between 800,000 and 1 million years old".



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Oldest Human Footprints Outside of Africa Found


View of footprint surface looking north. Credit: Simon Parfitt Citizens of Britain can now trace their origins several large steps backward in time. Archaeologists recently discovered the oldest set of human footprints outside of Africa along the eastern coast of Britain. Rough seas last summer in the village of Happisburgh, Norfolk, washed away portions of the shore revealing a set of about 50 footprints. Researchers estimate the prints are between 800,000 and 1 million years old.

Footprints' History

Due to the various sizes of footprints, researchers believe a mixed group of at least five adults and juveniles were walking along mudflats of what was then the Thames River estuary. Based on the size of the prints, researchers believe the group was related to Homo antecessor, or “Pioneer Man,” which died off some 800,000 years ago. The group was likely scouting the area for food, and could have been related.


Researchers found 50 footprints from a group of five adults and juveniles. Prior to the Norfolk find, the oldest human remains found in Britain were a set of tools dating back 700,000 years. Older human evidence tends to be found in southern Europe where researchers, for example, have unearthed 780,000-year-old skull fragments in southern Spain. The Norfolk find sheds new light on the tenacity and adaptability of northern Europe's earliest human ancestors, Chris Stringer, an archaeologist with the project, told the Associated Press:

"This makes us rethink our feelings about the capacity of these early people, that they were coping with conditions somewhat colder than the present day,” he said. "Maybe they had cultural adaptations to the cold we hadn't even thought were possible 900,000 years ago. Did they wear clothing? Did they make shelters, windbreaks and so on? Could they have the use of fire that far back?"

A Rare Find

The discovery is significant to our understanding of human origins, but it’s also incredibly lucky. Finding preserved footsteps is difficult, given the punishing forces of erosion along seacoasts. Previously, the record for the oldest set of footprints in Britain was 7,500 years old, which pales in comparison to the Norfolk find. The Norfolk team called the Happisburgh prints a “one in a million” find. Fortunately, archaeologists captured plenty of photographic evidence to study Britain’s oldest footprints in May 2013, because what the sea gives it also takes away. Most of the ancient footprints have already disappeared due to erosion. However, researchers are optimistic that the same forces could someday unveil new evidence, as well.

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Discovering the oldest human footprints in Europe


Earliest evidence of humans in Britain

By measuring the footprints, the team were able to estimate the height and weight of the individuals who made them. It appears a small group of adults and children, between 90 and 170 centimetres tall, left the trails as they walked along the mudflats of a river estuary.

Using pollen in sediment layers, the scientists dated the footprints to between 850,000 and 950,000 years ago. This age means the footprints may have been left by Homo antecessor, an early human species known to be present in Europe at that time.



 Homo erectus




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 Homo erectus, our ancient ancestor

Homo erectus

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Reconstruction of a Terra Amata dwelling

In 1962, a 366 cm × 427 cm × 30 cm (12 ft × 14 ft × 1 ft) circle made with volcanic rocks was discovered in Olduvai Gorge. At 61–76 cm (2–2.5 ft) intervals, rocks were piled up to 15–23 cm (6–9 in) high. British palaeoanthropologist Mary Leakey suggested the rock piles were used to support poles stuck into the ground, possibly to support a windbreak or a rough hut. Some modern day nomadic tribes build similar low-lying rock walls to build temporary shelters upon, bending upright branches as poles and using grasses or animal hide as a screen.[99] Dating to 1.75 Mya, it is the oldest claimed evidence of architecture.[100]

In Europe, evidence of constructed dwelling structures dating to or following the Holstein Interglacial (which began 424 kya) has been claimed in Bilzingsleben, Germany; Terra Amata, France; and Fermanville and Saint-Germain-des-Vaux in Normandy. The oldest evidence of a dwelling (and a campfire) in Europe comes from Přezletice, Czech Republic, 700 kya during the Cromerian Interglacial. This dwelling's base measured about 3 m × 4 m (9.8 ft × 13.1 ft) on the exterior and 3 m × 2 m (9.8 ft × 6.6 ft) on the interior, and is considered to have been a firm surface hut, probably with a vaulted roof made of thick branches or thin poles, supported by a foundation of big rocks and earth, and likely functioned as a winter base camp.[101]






 Swanscombe Woman


Swanscombe Heritage Park

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Swanscombe Skull Site or Swanscombe Heritage Park is a 3.9 hectares (9.6 acres) geological Site of Special Scientific Interest in Swanscombe in north-west Kent, England.[1][2] It contains two Geological Conservation Review sites[3][4] and a National Nature Reserve.[5] The park lies in a former gravel quarry, Barnfield Pit.[6]

Hand axes from Swanscombe at the British Museum found by Marston (not on display)
Mammoth tooth excavated from the site

The area was already known for the finds of numerous Palaeolithic-era handaxes—mostly Acheulean and Clactonian artifacts, some as much as 400,000 years old—when in 1935/1936 work at Barnfield Pit uncovered two fossilised skull fragments. These fragments came to be known as the remains of Swanscombe Man but were later found to have belonged to a young woman.[7] The Swanscombe skull has been identified as early Neanderthal[8] or pre-Neanderthal,[9] dating to the Hoxnian Interglacial around 400,000 years ago.[6]


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It is actually believed some parts of the skull belonging to the face may still be missing.

The 400,000 year old Swanscombe skull and the Ebbsfleet Elephant at the heart of Kent's prehistoric metropolis

They say if you don't know where you've come from, you don't know where you're going.

Thankfully for the residents of Swanscombe and Kent they don't have far to travel to piece together a vital piece of early human history.

The Swanscombe Skull site as it was prior to the introduction of the heritage park.

It's hard to imagine now but homes along the Thames Estuary were once on land which hyenas, cave lions and huge mammoth-sized elephants freely roamed.

They were joined by perhaps the town's oldest resident – a 400,000 year old ancestor to the Neanderthal species – known as the Swanscombe woman.

Swanscombe is one of only two sites in Britain where actual human remains of this very early period have been found.

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Between 1997 and 2004 a series of archaeological excavations were carried out in the Ebbsfleet Valley in advance of High Speed 1's passage into Kent .

They were led by Dr Francis Wenban-Smith, a research professor of archaeology at the University of Southampton, working in partnership with Oxford Archaeology who commissioned the dig, near the Swanscombe Skull site.

Together they safely removed a 400,000-year-old elephant tusk from a building site near Swan Valley Community School on Southfleet Road, now Ebbsfleet Academy.

The mammoth find was one-and-a-half metres long and belonged to an extinct species of straight tusked elephants, capable of resting their chins on the back of their African Savannah equivalents today.

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The Ebbsfleet elephant

People Killed Elephant.

The marshy valley teems with life. Herds of deer, aurochs, and a troop of macaque monkeys jostle for space as they wait their turn to drink from a sluggish, spring-fed stream. On the far bank a rhinoceros laps steadily at the water, its horned head obscured by thick reed-beds carpeting the valley floor in verdant green. Encroaching forest has been trampled down by heavy hooves to form a clearing, while nearby vegetation has been stripped almost bare by voracious grazing. On a low chalk cliff overlooking the valley, a huge male lion lazes watchfully near the carcass of a day-old kill. And towering over everything is a majestic, solitary bull elephant, ambling down the valley side towards the water’s edge.

Without warning, a pack of strongly built men burst from their hiding place in the undergrowth. Brandishing sturdy wooden spears and uttering harsh hunting cries, they close in on the startled elephant. It is a well-practised ambush. The men have been hiding patiently for many hours at a favoured hunting site. They approach cautiously at first, snapping like wolves at the elephant’s flanks, wary of tusks that slice through the air like scythes. Some of the group fling their spears at close range, while the more experienced hunters aim for the elephant’s eyes in the hope of blinding the enraged animal.

More than twice the height of a man, the lumbering beast cannot turn quickly enough to protect itself from every direction. The hunters dart close to fling their spears with terrific force, before leaping clear, and the elephant gradually weakens, succumbing to the deadly hail of spears. As the mighty beast collapses onto a patch of sun-baked clay beside the mire, its blood is oozing from numerous puncture wounds. The hunters close in for the kill.

As their initial excitement subsides, one of the men searches the ground for suitable flint nodules, which are plentiful along the stream bank. Using another flint as a hammerstone, the hunter squats beside the elephant and, with a few deft strikes, splits the nodule into a handful of razor-sharp blades and scrapers. Before long the whole group, brandishing similar tools, is butchering the carcass, expertly stripping away the most prized cuts. Several of the hunters slice at the fatty foot-pads, another smashes the skull open with a rock to scoop out the brain. Working together, two others lever the jaw off with a branch and start cutting at the elephant’s tongue. When they are done, only the hide, bones, and tusks are left to mark where the beast fell. The death of this elephant means life for their tribe. Almost everything they need to survive can be won from its bloody carcass.

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 Astonishing recent finds include eight complete wooden spears from a 300,000-year-old wild-horse hunting camp at Schöningen in Germany. These well-preserved wooden artefacts exhibit a high level of craftsmanship. At Lehringen, another German site, a spear was found apparently embedded in a straight-tusked elephant’s ribcage. The Southfleet Road evidence is less explicit, but a wooden spearpoint has been found in the Thames Estuary at Clacton-on-Sea, indicating that early hominins with comparable capabilities were active in southern Britain around 400,000 years ago.



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 How Doggerland Sank Beneath The Waves (500,000-4000 BC) // Prehistoric Europe Documentary

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Since Ice ages took up most of the timeline of human evolution, and sea levels were about 200 feet lower, most the history of man is beneath the waves. If we could just have a look of that part of evolution... The first Asian, first Australian and the first American trekked along coasts which are under water today. This video makes you realise that complete landscapes were there were is now ocean. Fascinating what traces of human development one could find there .


 The Thames and Rhine flowed into the same delta ????. So many small aspects of this documentary could be a long interesting documentary themselves.

Britain Before The Ice Age

Landscape Mysteries presented by Aubrey Manning.Britain before the Ice, Secrets of the flood.

Europe Before the Ice Age

 Britain became Island

 Tony Robinson reveals astonishing new evidence that shows how, 8000 years ago, a huge tsunami swamped the east coast of Britain and killed thousands of Stone Age white Europeans. Before the tsunami Stone Age people could travel over the land bridge (Doggerland) between Great Britain and continental Europe and the tsunami and melting ice made Britain an island.

  Time Team Special 51 (2013) - Britain's Stone Age Tsunami

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Doggerland  now called the Dogger Banks off the east coast of Britain

Hidden Histories: Doggerland

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  Underwater Lost City in England | Lost Cities With Albert Lin

This is amazing!!! I was wondering what that might be about till I get speechless when it was affirmed: "We don't know yet", "nothing like that in the country" and "the most ancient boat-building site yet on Earth"!!!!!! I DO LOVE IT. Thanks for the video!!!!!
Looked like a big old wooden spike wall. I don’t know about an underground city. Cool. A Bit misleading tho.


 Homo Heidelbergensis


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  Die Sandgrube Grafenrain - Fundort des Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis Homo Heidelbergensis

3D interactive model of (Homo heidelbergensis) skull cast

  Species Shorts: Homo heidelbergensis



Schöningen spears

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The age of the spears, originally assessed as being between 380,000 and 400,000 years old,[5][6][7][8] was estimated from their stratigraphic position, "sandwiched between deposits of the Elsterian and Saalian glaciations, and situated within a well-studied sedimentary sequence."[9] However, more recently, thermoluminescence dating of heated flints in a deposit beneath that which contained the spears date the spears to between 337,000 and 300,000 years old, placing them at the end of the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage 9.[10][11] The Schöningen spears thus postdate the earlier fragmented Clacton spear point, attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 11,[12][13] but remain the oldest complete wooden weapons.

To date, hominin remains have not been discovered from the Schöningen Pleistocene deposits, and therefore the species that crafted and used the wooden weapons and other tools at Schöningen remains uncertain. The most likely candidates are Homo heidelbergensis. or early Neanderthals.[14][15] The spears provide clear evidence of the importance of wood as a material for Palaeolithic tools, and also further support the practice of hunting by Middle Pleistocene humans.

Jump to navigation Jump to search
One of the spears

The Schöningen spears are a set of ten wooden weapons from the Palaeolithic Age that were excavated between 1994 and 1999 from the 'Spear Horizon' in the open-cast lignite mine in Schöningen, Helmstedt district, Germany. They were found together with animal bones and stone and bone tools.[1][2][3][4] The excavations took place under the management of Hartmut Thieme of the Lower Saxony State Service for Cultural Heritage (NLD).

Shaft section



Description and function

A spear in situ

Most of the spears were made using trunks of slow-growing spruce trees, except for spear IV, which is made from pine. The complete spears vary in length from 1.84 to 2.53 m (6.04 to 8.30 ft), with diameters ranging from 29 to 47 mm (1.14 to 1.85 in).[26] The wooden finds were exposed to sedimentary pressure, and there are varying degrees of deformation.

The spears were debarked and have evidence of working traces at both ends, demonstrating that they were shaped to be double pointed.[27] One exception is Spear VI, which does not appear to taper at the back. The points of the spears made use of the bases of trees, which is harder wood, while the soft inner pith is offset from the tip.[28] These features suggest an awareness of the properties of wood, and the design in such a way as to maximise the hardness of wood.

Like today’s tournament javelins, the greatest diameter and therefore likely the centre of gravity is located in the front third of the shaft of at least some of the spears.[29] In addition, most of the spears, with the exception of Spear VI, taper at both the front and the back, which may assist flight aerodynamics. This led many to suggest that they may have been designed as thrown spears, similar to a modern javelin.

Experimental research using experienced athletes to throw replicas of Spear II show that the spears are capable of being thrown at distances of at leat 15–20 m, and are similar in weight and balance to javelins.[30][31][32] However, Spear VI, which does not taper at the back and also has a natural kink, is interpreted as a thrusting spear,[33] and replicas of Spear II have also been experimentally tested as thrusting spears.[34] Ethnographically, wooden spears were used as both thrusting and throwing spears.[35] Together the evidence suggests that the Schöningen spears most likely had multiple uses including for self-defence against dangerous predators such as saber-toothed cats, with whom the humans shared the landscape.[36]

Other discoveries

In addition to the spears and double-pointed sticks, a charred wooden stick made of spruce and measuring 87.7 by 3.6 cm was also found at Schöningen 13 II-4, and is interpreted as a possible skewer.[37] Hundreds of additional wooden fragments from the site are the subject of ongoing research by a multidisciplinary team.

Also among the finds are the so-called 'clamp shafts', excavated from locality Schöningen 12b, a site that formed earlier than Schöningen 13 II-4. These tools were made from the extremely hard wooden branch-bases of the European silver fir. They are noticeably worked and may have been used as handles for stone tools.[38]

As of 2015, around 1500 stone tools and over 12,000 animal bones were found.[39] The stone tools comprise denticulates, some bifacially worked tools, retouched flakes and scrapers, but there are no handaxes or handaxe thinning flakes.[40] As such the stone tools are interpreted as late Lower Palaeolithic in nature. The majority of animal bones with signs of butchery belong to an extinct species of horse (Equus mosbachensis). Also present are red deer and large bovids.[41][42] Marks on the bones suggest that the humans had first access to the carcasses, and that carnivores such as wolves and sabre-tooth cats accessed the bones later. Marks from stone tools suggest that humans worked together to butcher their prey.[43] Bone tools have also been discovered in the 'Spear Horizon', and are suggested to have been used for knapping flint and for breaking open other bones for marrow.[44]

Thanks to excellent preservation conditions, there are many finds of small animals, among them small mammals, fish, mollusks and insects. Together with the carpological remains, they enable a detailed reconstruction of the climate and the environment, and show that the site of 13 II formed towards the end of the interglacial.[45]



The Neanderthals in Europe and the Middle East


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Neanderthals - White people in 400,000 - 24,000 BC - Wardruna - Gibu


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Who were the Neanderthals? | DW Documentary

 Long before Homo sapiens populated the earth, the Neanderthals lived in Eurasia.

Now, paleoanthropologists in England and France are using new archeological methods to shed light on some previously unexplained Neanderthal mysteries.

In an age clouded by the mists of time, the first early humans colonized the Eurasian continent. They settled on land that had only recently been covered by glaciers. This species, called Neanderthals, died out about 30,000 years ago -- but at one time, they formed the largest group in an area that stretched from northern France to the Belgian coast and from the Channel Islands to southern England.

During the last Ice Age, the North Sea was frozen over -- and the English Channel was a small river that could easily be crossed on foot. The Neanderthals lived in close harmony with their perpetually changing environment. They had everything they needed to survive: the meat of prey animals, edible wild plants, water and wood for cooking and heating. How did these early humans develop over almost 300,000 years? What were their lives like before they became extinct?

Our documentary is based on the latest research. We investigate various populations of Neanderthals, and visit archaeological sites in northern France, southern England, and on the island of Jersey.

Renowned researchers such as the British paleoanthropologist Chris Stringer and his French colleague Ludovic Slimak describe how the Neanderthals lived, and discuss their cognitive abilities. Was this species capable of structured thinking? Did they have cultures, languages, and societies? How intelligent were they, and what sort of adaptive strategies kept them alive for 300,000 years? How similar were they to modern-day humans?

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 Map of remains of Neanderthals.

My Ancestors on my Father's side, were from England. My DNA results showed I have a good amount of Neanderthals I my blood. Iva always wanted to learn more about them. I thank you so much for sharing this important History with us. I'm thrilled to learn about my Ancestors, finally. My Father's side had similar Characteristics that you mentioned, with the height nose etc. I share some as well. Please share more info if you can. I loved this. Thank you!!!
Victorian humans were shorter on average than modern humans due to chronic malnourishment. Perhaps on average slightly taller than Neanderthals.


 Screenshot 1complete mScience & Environment

How scientists recreated Neanderthal man

  • 23 October 2012

A team of scientists has created what it believes is the first really accurate reconstruction of Neanderthal man, from a skeleton that was discovered in France over a century ago.

In 1909, excavations at La Ferrassie cave in the Dordogne unearthed the remains of a group of Neanderthals. One of the skeletons in that group was that of an adult male, given the name La Ferrassie 1.

These remains have helped scientists create a detailed reconstruction of our closest prehistoric relative for a new BBC series, Prehistoric Autopsy.

How Scientists Recreated Neanderthal Man

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Ancient genomes 2: Neandertals within us

 Neanderthal Gene Cluster More Common in Europeans

Neanderthals are not entirely gone. Their DNA lives on within us, but more in some people than others. People of European ancestry are much more likely to have inherited a bundle of Neanderthal variants in their genome as compared to those of Asian or African descent.

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Reconstructed Face Of Neanderthal Woman

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Posted on April 3, 2014

Europeans Have Three times More Neanderthal Genes for Lipid Catabolism than Asians or Africans

Science Daily, April 2, 2014

Contemporary Europeans have as many as three times more Neanderthal variants in genes involved in lipid catabolism than Asians and Africans.

Although Neanderthals are extinct, fragments of their genomes persist in modern humans. These shared regions are unevenly distributed across the genome and some regions are particularly enriched with Neanderthal variants. An international team of researchers led by Philipp Khaitovich of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and the CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology in Shanghai, China, show that DNA sequences shared between modern humans and Neanderthals are specifically enriched in genes involved in the metabolic breakdown of lipids. This sharing of genes is seen mainly in contemporary humans of European descent and may have given a selective advantage to the individuals with the Neanderthal variants.

The researchers analyzed the distribution of Neanderthal variants in the genomes of eleven contemporary human populations of African, Asian and European descent. They found that genes involved in the lipid synthesis contained a particularly high number of Neanderthal variants in contemporary humans of European origin, but not in Asians and Africans.

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Neanderthal, 'The lost face of Humanity'!

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White Neanderthal group picture taken from above video

Neanderthal family.

Ancient Music - Cavemen

175,000 year old evidence that the first inhabitants of Europe were highly underestimated. The best forensic artists reconstruct their faces from the actual skulls with staggering result. Our cousins were beautiful. If you do not have any African genes, science says you are related to these folks from the beginning.

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Some Neanderthal females and males wouldn't look out of place in most parts of the western world. This assumes early 21st Century clothing and hairstyles, of course.

2 pictures on right taken from the video above " 175,000 Year old evidence that the first inhabitants of Europe were highly underestimated. The best forensic artist reconstruct their faces from the actual skulls with staggering result.   .The most deeply rooted Morphological comparison between Neanderthals and modern Europeans immediately reveals striking similarities in unique physical traits not found among Africans."

Neanderthal Hair  and Skin Colour.



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 The Red Headed Neanderthal


 "Some Neanderthals were redheads, a DNA study has shown."
Neanderthals 'were flame-haired'

...Genes for skin colour and hair colour are obvious early targets for scientists engaged in these efforts.
Pale skin - along with red or brown hair - appears to be the product of lower levels of sunlight present in areas further from the equator such as Europe.

...In Neanderthals, there was probably the whole range of hair colour we see today in modern European populations, from dark to blond right through to red.
Dr Carles Lalueza-Fox

Did the Neanderthal DNA give European blue eyes?

"DNA from our shorter, stockier cousins may be influencing skin tone, ease of tanning, hair color and sleeping patterns of those of present-day Europeans, according to a study from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology published Thursday in the American Journal of Human Genetics."

Neanderthal DNA Influences the Looks and Behavior of Modern Humans

DNA taken from Neanderthals show they had the same colouring as modern Europeans and Middle Eastern people. Some Neanderthals had light hair, eyes and skin, while others had olive skin and dark hair, eyes:

Struggling to get a tan? Blame your Neanderthal ancestors

"Both fossil and genetic evidence indicate that Neanderthals and modern humans evolved from a common ancestor at least 500,000 years ago."

How are blue eyes represented in the DNA of Neanderthals?

Imagined drawing of a Neanderthal based on skeletal remains and research.DNA from Neanderthals shows they influenced the way some modern humans look:

Neanderthal Genes Help Shape How Many Modern Humans Look

Europeans carry a Neanderthal gene, BNC2 which affects skin colour and is found in 70% of Europeans:

Surprise! 20 Percent of Neanderthal Genome Lives On in Modern Humans, Scientists Find

Neanderthals had different hair, eye and skin colour just like modern White Europeans. DNA taken from two female Neanderthals showed they had brown eyes but also carried genes for blue eyes:

Were Some Neandertals Brown-Eyed Girls?

"The new study, to be published in the American Journal of Human Biology later this spring, looks at the genomes of three female Neandertals from Croatia. Their DNA was the basis of the first effort to compile a complete Neandertal genetic sequence, which was published in 2010.

The researchers focused their attention on 40 well-studied stretches of genetic material that help determine pigmentation in living people. A particular form of the gene known as TPCN2, for example, bestows brown hair in modern humans; any other form means hair that's another color.

One complication is that traits such as hair color are controlled by multiple genes. To determine the cumulative impact of multiple genes on one trait, the authors assumed they could simply add together the impact of individual genes. The female Neandertal known as Vi33.26, for example, had seven genes for brown eyes, one for "not-brown" eyes, three for blue eyes, and four for "not-blue eyes." By the researchers' reckoning, that means a six-gene balance in favor of brown and a negative balance for blue, so Vi33.26's eyes were probably brown. According to this method, all three Neandertals had a dark complexion and brown eyes, and although one was red-haired, two sported brown locks.

Study author Tábita Hünemeier of Brazil's Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul says she's not surprised by the results. "There was a large population of Neandertals in Europe," she says. "It's impossible that an entire population has red hair or blue eyes."

 "Other archaeological evidence unearthed at Neanderthal sites provides reason to believe that Neanderthals did in fact have a diverse diet. Microfossils found in Neanderthal teeth and food remains left behind at cooking sites indicate that they may have eaten wild peas, acorns, pistachios, grass seeds, wild olives, pine nuts and date palms depending on what was locally available."

I am clearly descendant of Neanderthal. Don't know how far back and what other ancestors were but I have a triangular face, stocky built, bump in the back of my head and I can tolerate cold climate. On top of that the outline of the hand left by Neanderthal matches my hand. In short, I am a white European descended from people that lived there for hundreds of thousands years.

Neanderthals vs Cro-Magnon (Modern European Caucasians )



The Neanderthals first appeared in Europe about 700,000 years ago and died out some 28,000 years ago. Some DNA testing on Neanderthal bones has revealed they were light-skinned as European Caucasians are today and some had red hair. They had a brow ridge and were shorter than the Ice Age Europeans. The Neanderthal skull image (below), displays the brow ridge.  The drawing of the Neanderthal man (pictured right), demonstrates their features are not too dissimilar to Europeans today.

400 thousand year old Neanderthal skull remains found in Spain.  Displayed in Natural History Museum in London.The globalist promote that the first Ice Age White European Caucasians are believed to have moved into Europe approximately 40,000 years ago. The question is; where did the Caucasoids people from Europe and the Middle East come from?  Their skeletons have not been found in Africa so it is believed by many, the Caucasoids originated somewhere in the Caucasus region of Southern Russia and developed from Neanderthals.

The skeletons of Europeans and many people who live in the Middle East are the same and some people in the Middle East have European features and some have the Middle Eastern looks, and both groups are called Caucasoids. These Caucasoids migrated into Europe and the Middle East who replaced the Neanderthals.

When Modern Caucasoids migrated into the Middle East and Europe certain changes occurred within both these groups.  Those who moved into Europe had brown eyes and over time many developed blonde hair and blue or green eyes, while many of those who went into the Middle East have predominantly kept their darker hair and brown eyes.

When discussing why Neanderthals became extinct and Modern Caucasoids survived, it has been estimated there has been no more than 50,000 Neanderthals living in Europe and one predominant theory was that physical conflicts resulted in the demise of Neanderthals. They had a lower birth rate and could not compete against European Caucasians therefore, over time they disappeared. Article in Nature recently published research on archaeological cave settlements which were found in Western Galilee, Israel, demonstrating both groups of modern humans and Neanderthals lived at the same time just a short distance from each other with peaceful interaction being demonstrated. 

Scientists in Western Galilee, Israel, unearthed skull remains of both modern man and Neanderthals who lived in the same area about 55,000 years ago.  New theories have shown the Neanderthals were not as resourceful as mankind today.

Map of Europe during the last Ice Age The map on the right shows Europe during the Ice age approximately 10,000 years ago showing a very different world than to what it is today.

During the Ice Age in Europe, Eurasia and the Middle East there was no Christianity; no Islam; no Jewish religion; no Talmud; no Hindu religion. Over a period of time religions have been created by man who adapted their ancient family custom beliefs and has taken over and claimed by the modern religions of today. Many people today have become religious fanatics resulting in millions of people being killed causing much suffering. We the People should learn our family history, customs and beliefs which were practiced before modern religion took over.

During the Ice Age, Europeans lived in small family groups often wandering over large areas they controlled and expanding their numbers from small groups into tribal groups leading into nations.

Genographic Project/Neanderthals  

For Neanderthals to kill their prey, they had to be very close to an animal to spear it and many were injured due to their hunting methods.  For example; some Neanderthal skeletons revealed broken bones which had healed. The average Neanderthal probably lived no more than 30 years. Around the end of the Ice Age, there was great fluctuation in the climate with periods of heavy snow and warming. During this time many animals became extinct. 

During this period, some inland Neanderthals appeared to have starved with evidence showing that they practiced cannibalism to survive. Remember that historically, people have resorted to cannibalism in extreme cases such as plane crashes.  Neanderthals living along coastal areas survived without the same hardships due to fishing.  This is particularly the case with the Neanderthals who lived around the Rock of Gibraltar, Southern Spain, where there are many caves. Some of these caves today are filled with water, however, during the Neanderthal period, the ocean was about 300 feet lower than it is today.  The Neanderthals who lived there survived by eating seafood and did not practice cannibalism.  DNA testing today shows that Neanderthal men bred with women from other Neanderthal groups, but due to the fact that their population was reduced in inland areas, subsequently the shortage of women led to inbreeding amongst themselves. Neanderthals lived in small groups and due to their harsh lifestyle, very few Neanderthal children reached adulthood with all these factors leading to their gradual decline.

 The Real Neanderthal Man 1-of-5

Discovery Channel Neanderthal Part-7-10

Decoding Neanderthals


Neanderthal Caves



They just can't have lived primarily in caves. There just aren't that many caves. How would the population of one cave make it hundreds of miles to the next viable cave, not to mention finding it. Nor do caves offer obvious protections superior to those of primitive man-made dwellings like yurts and teepees. What caves do, is help preserve the bones, so that we can find them. The bones that are not in caves or mashes or mud pits would have rotted away. Of the probably tiny percentage of Neanderthals who actually did happen to live in caves, those are the ones whose bones we find(Hominids don't tend to live in mud pits or marshes.)

"La Cotte de St Brelade is a Paleolithic site of early habitation in Saint Brélade, Jersey. Cotte means "cave" in Jèrriais. The cave is also known as Lé Creux ès Fées (The Fairies' Cave).[1][2]

Neanderthals lived there at various times between around 250,000 years ago and after 48,000 years ago—making it the earliest known occupation of the Channel Islands by a hominin species, and also possibly one of the last Neanderthal sites in northwestern Europe. It is the only site in the British Isles to have produced late Neanderthal fossils.[3][4]

At that time, with sea levels slightly below those at present, Jersey was part of Normandy, a peninsula jutting out from the coast, and La Cotte would have been a prominent landmark on the dry plain that linked Jersey to the French mainland. It was not until after the last Ice age that the sea eroded the coastline, separating first Guernsey, then Jersey and finally the Écréhous from the mainland."Wikipedia.

At home with the Neanderthals: Excavations at La Cotte de St Brelade

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Caves at Gibraltar.

Gorham's Cave Gibraltar in Europe

Our Neanderthals - Episode 1

Our Neanderthals - Episode 2

Other areas used mostly wood if trees were available, and places that had caves were the last to build houses, they had little dwellings for hunters when they went out on hunting trips before houses were made too, also there were houses found in the czech republic area that date to around 30,000 bc, so different areas start building houses at different times-

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10 Surprising Facts About The Neanderthals Who Were Not As Primitive As Previously Thought

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Excellent demonstration and the success was fast . Good quality pyrite is hard to find and the sparks are difficult to see unless in low light . The Old Ones must have considered viable pyrite like gold . Congrats for living where Daldinia is . Thanks again for another great video and all the best .

 Glue Makers

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Neanderthal Glue Makers | National Geographic


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 They made glue from birch trees, this means they sometimes lived in a thickly wooded area.
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 Neanderthal Breast Feeding and Teeth.


 "From drinking mom’s milk to nursing a winter illness, the new study reveals some surprising details about our ancient cousins."

What's more, the researchers used oxygen isotopes to determine that one Neanderthal youngster was born in the spring. After nursing for 2.5 years, the hominin was weaned from its mother's milk in the fall.

 Neanderthal teeth reveal intimate details of daily life

 "Neanderthals shows that our earliest ancestors practiced a primitive form of dentistry, using a toothpick-like tool to help alleviate a toothache".

Study: Neanderthals Practiced Primitive Dentistry To Treat Toothaches

Neanderthal tools and boats.


IT LOOKS like Neanderthals may have beaten modern humans to the seas. Growing evidence suggests our extinct cousins criss-crossed the Mediterranean in boats from 100,000 years ago – though not everyone is convinced they weren’t just good swimmers.

Neanderthals lived around the Mediterranean from 300,000 years ago. Their distinctive “Mousterian” stone tools are found on the Greek mainland and, intriguingly, have also been found on the Greek islands of Lefkada, Kefalonia and Zakynthos.

Neanderthals were ancient mariners

  Prehistoric Craft

They made nice tools


“The tools we’ve found at the site are technologically advanced and potentially older than tools in Britain belonging to our own species.”

Give Neanderthals Some Credit: They Made Nice Tools

"It appears that Neanderthals created specialized tools before they met Homo sapiens."

Neanderthals Prove Crafty



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Levallois Core Technology: An Alternative Way of Making Stone Tools

 In this video, Dr. James Dilley explores the Mousterian (Mode 3) style of flintknapping known as “prepared core technology” or the “Levallois technique”. The Levallois technique requires a high level of skill and cognition to plan several steps ahead during the flintknapping process (Schlanger 1996) as the shape and preparation of the core determines the shape of the flakes that are removed. By creating a prepared core, successfully removed flakes are detached which have a size and shape determined to some extent by the maker. This allows a flintknapper to detach large flakes with razor sharp edges that would make suitable cutting tools, or triangular flakes suitable for spear points.

I started studying American Lithics in 1993 and have found Lavallios points and a Lavallios Prepared Core. Our Lithics are coming across the Atlantic Ocean from Iberia and North Africa. We do not have Asian lithics.


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How To Make A Palaeolithic Handaxe - Flintknapping for #KnapTime (E2)

Join experimental archaeologist, Dr. James Dilley, for #KnapTime where he will be explaining and demonstrating the prehistoric technique of flintknapping. This week we'll be taking a trip back to the beginning of the human timeline, exploring the Palaeolithic period and its most iconic tool - the handaxe.

Before you join in and have a go at flintknapping yourself, be sure to watch the all important Flintknapping Health & Safety video:







 Prehistoric string theory


"CALL it prehistoric string theory. The earliest evidence of string has been found – apparently created by our Neanderthal cousins".

 World's oldest string found at French Neanderthal site



 “It’s really well understood that bacteria are swapped between people when they kiss,” says Weyrich. It’s possible that humans and Neanderthals kissed during sex 110,000 years ago, which could explain why the descendants of those interbreeding events – including both the El Sidrón Neanderthals and modern humans – ended up with similar forms of M. oralis bacteria in their mouths."

/ Neanderthals may have medicated with penicillin and painkillers



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Story of Neanderhtal Man's Flute

In 1996 archaeologists led by dr. Ivan Turk found the femur of a young cave bear with four holes in the palaeolithic Divje babe site. The age of the find was estimated at more than 45.000 years, which means that it is originated from Neanderthal times. Archeologists tried first to answer the following questions: is the find the work of human hands and can we assume that it is a flute? Videofilm shows the path that led archeologists to find answers to these questions.



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WORLD'S OLDEST INSTRUMENT played by Ljuben Dimkaroski (Divje babe cave)

 Ljuben Dimkaroski performs on the worlds oldest instrument replika in front of Divje babe cave. / Ljuben Dimkaroski igra na repliko najstarejšega znanega glasbila pred jamo Divje babe.

World's Oldest Musical Instrument

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Neanderthal Bone Flute Music

 "Short film, full title is Playing the Neanderthal flute of Divje babe, is authored by Sašo Niskač, music is performed by Ljuben Dimkaroski, scientific adviser is Dr. Ivan Turk, archaeologist. Extraordinary find from 1995 in Divje babe cave site, western Slovenia, it is most comprehensively described in the paper at, was met with great enthousiasm on one side and with great scepticism on the other side of the scientific audience, for details see Only in 2009 the dilemma if the holes in the bone were accidental or purpose-made, was finally resolved."

 Jim Walker

60,000 year old flute. There is no way a carnivore made those holes by chance. If it is true that Neanderthal had music and art we have to reevaluate everything we think we know about our mysterious cousins.
I am speach less. Hearing sounds of a musical instrment dating back 60,000 years.
I agree. I don't think Neanderthals were dumb, and I also feel that they had cultures, languages, and even spirituality, if some of their alleged burial rituals are anything to go by. I believe they were, in essence, just as 'human' and I am.

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Prehistoric bear jawbone from Potočka Zijalka cave -- also the oldest musical instrument

Edited. The Bear " jawbone's nerve canal is a natural whistle pipe. Jawbones from Potočka Zijalka cave, Mokriška Jama (Mokrica cave) and Betalov Spodmol cave, with snapped off crown outgrowths (and such is the case with the majority of the finds) and with one hole or more (or indeed even without) could all serve as musical instruments. If the crown outgrowth is snapped off, it is easier to get to the natural, sharp jaw flute mouthpiece (a sharp opening into the nerve canal). When the prehistoric hunter sipped the nutritious marrow out of the canal, the jawbone would have become audible as a result. Thus a spontaneous discovery could have led to the deliberate use and making of these prehistoric instruments, which closely linked man with the bear in rituals of worship -- at the time of the Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (White Europeans), the bear was the most venerated being. The jawbones, or supposed musical instruments, from Potočka Zijalka do indeed date back to the Cro-Magnon period (30,000 to 35,000 years before the present), while the jawbone with one hole from Betalov Spodmol dates back to Neanderthal times (40,000 years ago) and therefore to the same period of time as the now already famous flute from Divje Babe. Many of the finds from Potočka Zijalka were unfortunately destroyed during the bombing of Celje during World War II. It is quite likely that these bear jawbones, which are above all a Slovenian peculiarity, are of the same age (certainly at least the one from Betalov Spodmol) and equally important musical instruments as the flute from Divje Babe, which is today considered among the oldest in the country and indeed the world. All of them are probably the work of human hands.

In short, jawbones are instruments if they have holes in them and even if they do not, as even an empty mandibular canal can sound a few tones."

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Neanderthal Engravings



Groundbreaking discovery at Gorham's Cave: Neanderthal engravings found

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Using a relatively new dating technique, archaeologists determined that paintings found in three caves in Spain were created by Neanderthals more than 64,000 years ago — about 20,000 years before some scientists believe white Europeans arrived in Europe.

  Newly-Found Ancient Cave Paintings Show Neanderthals Were Artists Before Modern Humans

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Neanderthals unite around shared beliefs, forming the basis for early religion.

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Neanderthal, 'The lost face of Humanity'!

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Neanderthals placed cave bear skulls in stone walled pit.

Cave Bear - Ancient Animal

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Cave Bear - Ancient Animal

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Cave Bear - Ancient Animal

Truly a monster of a bear, especially for it being primarily vegetarian. Cave lion bones are found in cave bear dens. Would almost certainly be a death sentence for any predator to walk into a cave and the bear wasn’t fully hibernating


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6. Hunting with Neanderthals - OUT OF THE CRADLE [人類誕生CG] / NHK Documentary

 Neanderthals were a hominin species closely related to modern humans that appeared around 400,000 years ago and relied on their superior physical strength as they hunted in the forested areas of Eurasia.

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Grizzly bear takes shotgun blast at point-blank range and keeps charging | New York Post

 When a Canadian family noticed a group of bears on their property, the father attempted to scare them off by firing a warning shot into the air. Unfortunately, this provoked the mother bear, who charged. Amazingly, the man was able to fire off his last shot, momentarily knocking the beast off her feet and giving him enough time to make it back to safety. He later tracked the bear family, and believes while the mama bear is sore, she's okay.

We’re literally witnessing a man that was feet away from being mauled and ripped apart alive by a Grizzly. Dude literally saw death in the face. Was saved by his shotgun
Never try to intimidate a Momma bear with Cubs. That's when they are most willing to attack and defend. I know a woman who was killed walking her dog because she encountered a Momma bear with cubs and the dog starting barking and being aggressive and the momma bear went after the dog and killed it and turned on the woman and mauled her to death in a matter of just a few minutes.
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Explorer Returns With Chilling Information About Deepest Cave On Earth


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 Neanderthals were thoughtful and cared about each other.

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  The Neanderthals That Taught Us About Humanity

Throughout the first half of the 20th century, Neandertals were thought to have been…primitive. Unintelligent, hunched-over cavemen, for lack of a better word. But the discoveries made in that Iraqi cave provided some of the earliest clues that Neanderthals actually behaved -- and likely thought and felt -- a lot like we do.

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Cecily Cook

Love these videos. Was able to trace my fathers lineage all the way back to Neanderthal (bad joints, osteoarthritis/arthritis, degenerative diseases are common on my dads side as well)

Harry G-man

Maybe the tribes of Neanderthals looking after these old boys thought that they had earned a more comfortable life. They had done so much and endured so much for the tribe that they wanted to look after them and keep them around, even crippled and old, because of the knowledge and experience they had.

 J So

This is incredible. I remember when I first heard of evidence of Neanderthal burial rites, and how shocking that was, but as the evidence grows it seems shocking that we doubted.

 J R

Made me feel sorry for a guy who's been dead for thousands of years.

 Ian Macfarlane

This really shouldn't be that surprising - all Great Apes care for each other and many other animals do the same. There's no reason to imagine that Neanderthals didn't share the full gamut of human emotions including love, empathy and respect for each other. The Old Man of La Chappelle (Dave?) and Shanidar One presumably lived with their extended families, and particularly with the latter his injuries might have occurred during a hunt as a youth - either an interaction with a large animal or a fall from height, and in that case he'd have sacrificed his mobility for the group. When I see how similar we are to Chimps, Benobos, Gorillas and Orang Utan I can only imagine that Neanderthals were almost exactly like us in every regard.

 Sungill Kim

If the Neaderthals were similar to us, the length of pregnancy and helplessness of the newborns would have made essential the need for community caring.

Neanderthals dosed themselves with painkillers and possibly penicillin, according to a study of their teeth.

One sick Neanderthal chewed the bark of the poplar tree, which contains a chemical related to aspirin.

He may also have been using penicillin, long before antibiotics were developed.

The evidence comes from ancient DNA found in the dental tartar of Neanderthals living about 40,000 years ago in central Europe.

Microbes and food stuck to the teeth of the ancient hominins gives scientists a window into the past.

Flower Burial

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https:/ Neanderthal -Shanidar cave Kurdistan

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Shanidar Cave, Barzan-Kurdistan

Shanidar Cave

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Shanidar Cave (Kurdish: Zewî Çemî Şaneder ,ئەشکەوتی شانەدەر‎,[1][2] Arabic: كَهَف شانِدَر[3]) is an archaeological site located on Bradost Mountain in the Erbil Governorate of Kurdistan Region in northern Iraq.[4] Anthropologist Ralph Solecki led a crew from Columbia University to explore the site beginning in 1951. With the accompaniment of Kurdish workers, the group excavated the Shanidar Cave and found the remains of eight adult and two infant Neanderthals, dating from around 65,000–35,000 years ago.[5][4] These individuals were uncovered amongst a Mousterian layer accompanied by various stone tools and animal remains. The cave also contains two later proto-Neolithic cemeteries, one of which dates back about 10,600 years and contains 35 individuals, and is considered by Solecki to belong to the Natufian culture.[6]

The skeleton of Shanidar 4, an adult male aged 30–45 years, was discovered by Solecki in 1960,[21] positioned on his left side in a partial fetal position.

For many years, Shanidar 4 was thought to provide strong evidence for a Neanderthal burial ritual. Routine soil samples from around the body, gathered for pollen analysis in an attempt to reconstruct the palaeoclimate and vegetational history of the site, were analysed eight years after its discovery. In two of the soil samples in particular, whole clumps of pollen were discovered by Arlette Leroi-Gourhan in addition to the usual pollen found throughout the site, suggesting that entire flowering plants (or at least heads of plants) had been part of the grave deposit.[22] Furthermore, a study of the particular flower types suggested that the flowers may have been chosen for their specific medicinal properties. Yarrow, cornflower, bachelor's button, St Barnaby's thistle, ragwort, grape hyacinth, horsetail and hollyhock were represented in the pollen samples, all of which have been traditionally used, as diuretics, stimulants, and astringents and anti-inflammatories.[23] This led to the idea that the man could possibly have had shamanic powers, perhaps acting as medicine man to the Shanidar Neanderthals.[24][21]

  Neanderthals collected shells at the beach, just like us


 Cro Magnons (European Whites) vs Neanderthals

Neanderthal vs Cro Magnon

 Modern White Europeans

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female skull offers ‘oldest modern human genome’

Remains thought to be more than 45,000 years old have been used to reconstruct a complete set of DNA – known as a genome – of an early modern human.

The genetic information comes from a skull unearthed at a site near Prague in the Czech Republic. It was named Zlatý kůň, ‘golden horse’ in Czech, and is believed to be the oldest reconstructed modern human genome to date.

The findings, published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, suggest the woman had 3 per cent Neanderthal ancestry and lived nearer the time when Neanderthals were interbreeding with modern humans.

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 Kostenki 14. Image from the Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography.

 Groundbreaking genetic analysis of a 37,000-year-old human bone from Russia has revealed that modern Europeans have remained genetically identical from that time onward—and that there are increasing numbers of holes in the “out-of-Africa” theory of human development.

Groundbreaking Study of Ancient DNA Reveals Genetic Commonality to Modern Europeans

 Oldest remains found outside Africa may rewrite human migration to Europe



'Oldest remains' outside Africa reset human migration clock

 "A 210,000-year-old skull has been identified as the earliest modern human remains found outside Africa, putting the clock back on mankind's arrival in Europe by more than 150,000 years, researchers said Wednesday." Quote from Stormfront 

The Story of Humans and Neanderthals in Europe Is Being Rewritten

Ed Yong, Atlantic, July 10, 2019

In 1978, in a cave called Apidima at the southern end of Greece, a group of anthropologists found a pair of human-like skulls. One had a face, but was badly distorted; the other was just the left half of a braincase. {snip}


The one with the face, known as Apidima 2, is a 170,000-year-old Neanderthal—no surprises there. But the other, Apidima 1, was one of us—a 210,000-year-old modern human. And if the team is right about that, the partial skull is the oldest specimen of Homo sapiens outside Africa, handily beating the previous record holder, a jawbone from Israel’s Misliya Cave that’s about 180,000 years old. “I couldn’t believe it at first,” Harvati says, “but all the analyses we conducted gave the same result.”

Until now, most researchers have focused on the more complete (but less interesting) of the two skulls. “Apidima 1 has just been ignored,” says Harvati. But its antiquity matters for three reasons. First, it pushes back the known presence of modern humans outside Africa by some 30,000 years. Second, it’s considerably older than all other Homo sapiens fossils from Europe, all of which are 40,000 years old or younger. Third, it’s older than the Neanderthal skull next to it.

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Collectively, these traits mess up the standard story of Neanderthal and modern-human evolution. According to that narrative, Neanderthals slowly evolved in Europe, largely isolated from other kinds of hominins. When modern humans expanded out of Africa, their movements into Europe might have been stalled by the presence of the already successful Neanderthals. That explains why Homo sapiens stuck to a more southerly route into Asia, and why they left no European fossils until about 40,000 years ago. “The idea of Europe as ‘fortress Neanderthal’ has been gaining ground,” says Rebecca Wragg Sykes, an archaeologist from the University of Bordeaux, but identifying a 210,000-year-old Homo sapiens skull from Europe “really undermines that.”

“It suggests that early Homo sapiens groups got farther than we may have previously thought, occasionally occupying territories that later became that of Neanderthals,” adds Shara Bailey, an anthropologist at NYU. {snip}

The identity of Apidima 1 could also cast doubt on other archaeological finds from Europe, such as stone tools with no accompanying fossils. Researchers had long assumed that within a certain time window, “any archaeology was all the work of Neanderthals,” says Wragg Sykes. But if modern humans also occupied this “safe range,” which species actually created those artifacts?


How much information can scientists really glean from just the back of the skull, and just the left half at that? Actually, quite a lot, Harvati says: That region is very informative when telling different hominins apart. Apidima 1 lacks several traits that are distinctively Neanderthal, while its rounded shape “is considered to be a uniquely modern human feature that evolved relatively late,” Harvati says.

But “it doesn’t look like classic Homo sapiens,” says Wragg Sykes, who wonders whether it represents a group of humans that had been interbreeding with Neanderthals or other ancient hominins. “Obviously everyone is going to want to see DNA out of that skull,” she adds.


The Apidima skulls also suggest that the accepted story of Europe, in which modern humans eventually replaced the long-dominant Neanderthals, is too simple. Instead, Harvati thinks that modern humans were already in Greece about 200,000 years ago; they were then replaced by Neanderthals, who were themselves replaced by humans about 40,000 years ago. A similar cycle of competition, where Neanderthals and humans repeatedly replaced each other, seems to have happened in the Levant, the Middle Eastern region that includes Israel and Syria. {snip}


Greece is a good place to start. “It’s at the crossroads of three major continents, and it’s a refuge where animals and humans could survive at the height of the ice ages,” Harvati says. “You’d predict population dispersals and range contractions in these areas, the possibility for contact [between different groups], and a more diverse human-fossil record than you’d find in distant parts of Europe. There aren’t many fossils in the region, but it hasn’t been much of a research priority.”


First religion - they worship Life and Mother of Life *First abstract idea - Lion Man, representing Natural Law of Life *First social idea - Egalitarianism (almost unrealistic today).


AURIGNACIAN - the World's First Abstract Mindset Man from Europe

The video reveals the lifestyles of Ice Age hunters, how they started fire, type of hunting weapons they used and goes into some detail how the women contributed to their lifestyle and diet.

 Mystery of Life in the Paleolithic Age: Documentary on Stone Age Archaeology (Full Documentary)

Europeans,  Middle East Caucasoids, and Asians have Neanderthals DNA.



Genetic studies have indicated that non-Africans, (i.e. today’s Europeans and Asians), have between 1% – 4% of the genes from Neanderthals. The theory is that we obtained these genes from interracial relations with Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon (European Caucasians). This might be true in some cases however, there are some researchers who believe that a group of Neanderthals directly developed into Cro-Magnon man possibly in Eurasia. This means that Europeans and the rest of the Neanderthal population existed simultaneously for a very long time till the Neanderthals eventually died out and were replaced by Cro-Magnon man as the dominant hominid in Europe and the Middle East.  

For more information, have a read of David Duke's article discussing new research completed in 2012.

Ice Age White European houses and Culture






 Many people believe that early Europeans lived in caves, but evidence shows that this was not always true because there are not many caves people can live in.  Archaeological sites show that our European Ice Age ancestors made teepee type shelters.






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Imagine how much more ingenuity White European ancestors had to have before the advent of iron axes, scissors, and metal knives and moving to another campsites. This film was so fascinating.

  A Tent in Arctic Siberia - Living, Moving, and Making a Reindeer Skin Tent.

 In the far north of Siberia on the Yamal Peninsular a remote group of nomadic reindeer herders still live in tents whose design may date back thousands of years. The precursor to the modern tipi (tepee), the choom is made of fir poles and has covers of reindeer (caribou) hide. They move every few days throughout the winter so that the herd can gain access to the hidden fields of lichen that lie beneath the snow

What a barren landscape, nothing but snow and unforgivable cold. The women are amazing , so strong and resourceful. They can do anything. Also thank you very much for the person who filmed it in that brutal weather.

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  A Tent in Arctic Siberia - Living, Moving, and Making a Reindeer Skin Tent.


Nomadics Tipi Makers - Traditional Model Teepee (Tipis, Teepees)


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 25,000-Year-Old Building Made of 60 Mammoths | Science ...

Mar 16, 2020 — A Mysterious 25,000-Year-Old Structure Built of the Bones of 60 ... A jaw-dropping example of Ice Age architecture has been unearthed on Russia's forest steppe: a huge, ... Location of the mammoth bone structure found in modern-day ... them to be dwellings or “mammoth houses” that helped their builders .

 A Mysterious 25,000-Year-Old Structure Built of the Bones of 60 Mammoths

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25,000-Year-old Ice Age House Made From Mammoth Bones Discovered in Russia | Ancient Architects

 Back in 2014, researchers discovered a ‘mammoth house’ – a large circular structure that was built around 25,000 years ago, using the bones of 60 woolly mammoths. In this Ancient Architects video, I take a look at the discovery.

Excavations at the site began in 2015 and took three years to complete and have only just been published in the journal Antiquity and the findings are hugely important for our understanding of ancient humans.

The site of the large mammoth house also contains smaller buildings that were discovered back in the 1960s and 70s. It is located 310 miles south of Moscow and is now home to a museum.

The mammoth bone structures are not unique, examples are found right across Eastern Europe but until now, the oldest one was dated at 22,000 years old. Therefore the new discovery in Russia’s is the oldest example.

Experts have always said that these structures were built by roaming hunter-gatherers of the Palaeolithic, for refuge to survive the harsh winters of the ice age.

But the mammoth house found in Russia measures 30 feet by 30 feet. It is made from hundreds of mammoth bones and it would have taken considerable time and effort to make. For so-called hunter-gatherers, who roamed and didn’t spend a long time in one location, why would they go to so much trouble?

 Alain Vollant

Why looking so hard to explain what they have found? For whoever have lived close to a nomadic culture, you come to understand a few things... a wooden frame would have indicated a temporary structure to fit their nomadic lifestyle... so a bone structure is definitively a permanent encampment. Another fact often overlooked by archaeologist (specially when dealing with the north american tribes) is that a lost of those group were migrating following a repeating pattern or circuit... after a while, caches of food first, then certain structures (camp or cabin) were built to give the tribes an immediate shelter when arriving. The only rule was that you have to replace everything you have consumed so that the next group can use it too. After a while, those caches/camp became the part of a network of relay for the migrating groups. In regard of this particular one, I wont be surprise if they discover the site was use to process the mastodon meat and furs. Thus this camp would have been in use for 2-3 months then abandoned until the next migration.

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In Focus: Mammoth Bone Huts of Mezhirich


Extreme cold

"The last ice age swept northern Europe between 75,000 and 18,000 years ago, but it reached its most bone-chilling temperatures during a period lasting from about 23,000 to 18,000 years ago, when the circle at Kostenki 11 was built. 

During this time, the summers were short and cool, while the winters were long and cold, reaching temperatures as low as minus 4 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 20 degrees Celsius). These freezing temperatures prompted many human groups to head south, where prey and other resources were more abundant. Eventually, the community that built this bone circle left, too, even though there was a river nearby that could have provided them with fresh water, Pryor said."

 White Women Address In The Ice Age.

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 what north nomads ladies wear when -50C. Chukchee hygiene

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Using urine to process rain deer skin and moss for children’s urine must have been passed down for many generations! So incredible.















































Depictions of humans in Europe from 15,000 42,000 years before present

Pre Indo-European peoples of Europe From the Neanderthals and Cromagnon/Aurignacian modern humans in the upper paleolithic to the Minoan earliest .

What could be the oldest lifelike drawings of human faces have been uncovered in a cave in southern France. La Marche: (Magdalenian Cave Art). The cave .

Human figures, sculpted and engraved, found at Mas d'Azil - La Grotte du Mas d'Azil (Magdalenian, 16 000 - 15 000 BP) Disc showing a man and the paw of a



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This carving shows a woman holding a cattle horn and appears to be using it as a drinking item, similar to what the Vikings did. The horn could have been use as a trumpet with a hole at the pointed end.

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 Black Africans of the Zulu Tribe

Shembe: uDwendwe luka Msizi Sibiya esinelwa u-Andiswa Mbuyazi [ 1 6 - 0 5 - 2 0 2 1 ]

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Traditional culture is so powerful and vitally important, it represents the the ancestors who have put in place for us the seen and the unseen power to guide us. This was beautiful to see but I wish the majority of the people would not have worn European clothing for such a spiritual occassion.



Are these Goddess virgin? If so, they're the most holly women of Africa.
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If you look at the picture below, you will notice the women's clothing. It appears to show little function, with it simply appearing as a presentation piece. My guess the clothing is a decorative piece for dance. Similar to the young women in African tribes, especially the Zulus. They celebrated not being with a man in the form of a virgin dance. Some of the dances that Europeans celebrate today are presumably descendants of virgin dances practiced during the ice age.

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White female in Europe during the Ice Age showing dance outfits.

Depictions of humans in Europe from 15,000 42,000 years before presen

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Black African dancers.
Great dancers amazing way they moved their body to rhymed with the instruments played br
The Solutrean

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The Solutrean

 Solutreans and the earlier Ice Age Europeans

The Solutrean European (Epipaleolithic 22,000 to 17,000 years ago) Preceded by Gravettian. Followed by Magdalenian



White Men In The Ice Age


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(INTERNATIONAL TRANSLATIONS HERE: https://ultimatefashionhistorytransla...) In this first Ultimate Fashion History video, we're practically riding on dinosaurs (*joke) as we travel back to Prehistoric times, looking at clothing in the Neolithic and Paleolithic Eras, we'll speculate on The Birth of Style with those groovy Gravettians, and ultimately, we'll meet Otzi the Iceman.
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White Europeans made Clothing from animal skins and we can learn from other races

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 Tuktu- 1- His Nice New Clothes (making clothes from animal skins)

 Learn about traditional Inuit culture from this fascinating series. This series documents cultural practices, skills, and values in Nunavut in northern Canada. Each episode focuses on a different topic, and does a good job of celebrating the skills and resourcefulness of the Inuit.

A woman is a wife, mother, home maker, dress maker, food maker ,shoe maker, house builder....and what not? She is all in all! The epitome of "Shakti" or The Energy! ?


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  Una historia de vasconia | 1.- El mito de la caverna

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The Atlatl, or Spear-Thrower


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 Spearthrower made of antler showing a young ibex (or possibly a chamois) with an emerging turd on which two birds are perched, found around 1940 in the cave of Le Mas d'Azil, Ariege. This was one of the first examples of mass produced art. Fragments of up to ten examples of this design have been found, which means that scores or hundreds must have been manufactured originally. The joke must have been very popular amongst the people of the time! The ibex figure alone is about 7 cm long, and dates to about 16 000 BP. The entire propulseur is 29.5 cm in length. The engraved line along the body of the animal possibly represents a change in the colour of the coat. Although most authorities give the interpretation of a turd with birds above, Bandi (1988) proposes that the 'sausage' coming out of the back of the ibex/chamois is the sac of an infant, and the animal is giving birth. The reasons given are that animals never look back to see their own excrement, but usually do so when giving birth. In addition, the author says that the object is too thick to be excrement, it is much more likely to be the sac of an infant. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Facsimile, Musée d'Archeologie Nationale et Domaine, St-Germain-en-Laye

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The atlatl, or spear-thrower, was a revolutionary invention.

7. The Prehistoric Missile - OUT OF THE CRADLE [人類誕生CG] / NHK Documentary

White people were less robust and muscular than Neanderthals, but they compensated for their physical disadvantage by harnessing technology. In the series "Out of the Cradle," NHK tracks the evolutionary journey of prehistoric primates over the course of 7 million years as they grew into the dominant species on Earth. This series uses CGI technology from the world’s foremost video game creators to tell the story of human ancestors with extraordinarily lifelike visuals.

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Atlatl throwing

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Bows and arrows.


The invention of spears and bows and arrows may have helped early humans drive Neanderthals to extinctio

Around 45,000 years ago Neanderthals and modern humans coexisted in mainland Europe. However, over the course of the next 5,000 years the human population increased dramatically, allowing them to occupy new territories, while Neanderthals gradually died out

Exactly why this was the case has long eluded archaeologists, but now, an international team of researchers may have found the answer – modern humans developed projectile weapons such as spears and spear-throwers and bows and arrows to enable them to hunt more successfully than Neanderthals.

As a result, modern humans had ready access to food and were able to thrive while Neanderthals struggled to find sustenance and eventually went extinct.

The team found evidence of projectile weapons dating back 40,000 to 45,000 years, more than 20,000 earlier than any similar weapons found previously, in the Grotta del Cavallo, a limestone cave found in Southern Italy known to have been used by early modern humans during the Paleolithic era.

  48,000-year-old arrowheads found in Sri Lankan cave

 An international team of researchers have found a cache of immaculately preserved bone arrowheads in the cave of Fa-Hien Lena, deep in the heart of Sri Lanka’s rainforests. The find is evidence of the earliest use of bows and arrows anywhere outside of Africa, they say.

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Holmegaard bow

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The Holmegaard bows are a series of self bows found in the bogs of Northern Europe dating from the Mesolithic period.[1] They are named after the Holmegaard area of Denmark in which the first and oldest specimens were found, and are the oldest bows discovered anywhere in the world.

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  Maple Mollegabet (Holmegaard) Bow

67" 2" wide at bending limbs, hard maple bow. Pulls well over 65lbs. at 28" draw. In this video it is an unfinished self bow needing tiller adjustments and finish work. There are many variations to this design of bow. It is extremely versitile, fast, and was mass produced in its time. This design is one of my personal favorites in bow making.

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  Bringing a 23,000 Year Old Mammoth Ivory Boomerang to Life!

 Occoquan Paleotehnics demonstrates replica of paleolithic hunting weapon

The Mammoth Ivory Boomerang

Our first project in throwing technology here was replicating this famous archaeological find from 23,000 years ago, in what is now Poland.    The original was made in ivory, and is thought to be a throwing stick for hunting.  

Although called a boomerang, it would never have returned in  flight and was designed to go in a straight path toward target, with enough ballistic power to cripple even large game animals. Please check out our video here of the testing of our replicas.


Replica of the Oblazowa Cave Boomerang

 A functional replica of the 23,000 year old mammoth ivory boomerang found in Oblazowa Cave, Poland.   The original artifact belonged to the Pavlov Culture in paleolithic Europe.   It measured 70cm long(around 27.5 inches) and 6cm width.   The thickness was 1.5 cm.

Whites in Europe made rock weirs to obtain fish, we can learn from Tuktu people in North America.

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Tuktu- 7- The Ten Thousand Fishes (how to fish with a rock weir)

Just unbelievable. These films were financed by Henry Ford. So they wouldn't be lost in time. I think they were filmed about 70 to 80 years ago. There are at least 15 or more they are all great. Thanks Henry ford.
I grew up in the far northern Arctic Alaska, I was born 1954 and grew conscious of those around me at about 3. My grand parents wore exactly as you see the Natchelik wearing, but for us younger one already western shirts, pants, and for some that could afford parkas. My mother made me water proof mukluks, and fur parkas made from caribou skin. I believe we were the last generation to witness the fishing style of Canadian Natchilik. We are closely related the Natcheliq, my grandmother Ahqnagituak was from the area.
Fishing barbs
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What I find fascinating is the sharing of knowledge and skills from generation to generation, from community to community. There's a move to preserve this knowledge through bush craft. I wonder how much has been lost to time and so-called technology.
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Middle Neolithic, 6 300 - 6 200 years ago This fishing spear appears to have had three points, the classic trident, two of wood chosen and carved so as to be of a useful shape, with the third point formed of the extension of the spear shaft itself. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Artwork: © Roel Bakker.
Source and text: Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, National Museum of Antiquities, Leiden.
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This type of fishing barbs have found in white European Ice Age campsites

The detachable spear tip is a smart design. If the spear tip were just carved into the big piece of the spear, if the spear was one piece, after the tip pierces the fish and the one big piece floats to the top of the water, the fish would be able to more easily wiggle off the tip because of the stability of the long piece of wood floating in the water giving the fish something to have leverage against. But when the tip detaches from the big part of the spear and is in the fish underwater, as the fish wiggles to try to get free, the tip and sinew cord moves much more freely underwater with the fish's movements, giving the fish little resistance to wiggle away from. It's like a little Taoist Sun Tzu style yielding strategy mixed in: Let the spear tip move with the fish's struggling so the struggling is relatively made to be less movement. 
Although maybe it wouldn't matter if the spear was one big piece, because it looks like the fish are speared through pretty far. Is the detachable tip just so that if the tip breaks he doesn't have to make a whole new spear? Did I overthink it? He's just trying to save time making spears and I'm sitting here plotting how the fish will have no chance of escape? Or maybe the tip is for both reasons. Conveniently time-saving and providing more opportunity for the fish to help make the children happy.
That spear setup system if very clever, the string is attached to the spear tip, probably a piece of bone with a lot of time spent carving the point and barbs. This would be very light and compact while travelling and then any old stick could be used when you arrive at the destination.....This kind of thing is the biggest reason I still watch old doco's like this.
Yes they were eating fish raw.
Btw, I STILL don't get how they were able to keep their caches from the bears. Bears are stronger than any humans obviously, and they have an unmerciful sense of smell. So what's to stop a bear easily smelling the fish, then just as easily flinging those stones and snow and ice aside to get at them??? It just doesn't make sense to me.
Ropes and Fishing Lines and Hooks
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Fish on line .
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Join James as he takes you back to The Solutrean (22,000 - 18,000BP), a sub period of the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. This relatively short period in the European Palaeolithic saw the production of some of the finest stone tools in the entire Palaeolithic. The tools produced were spearheads, flaked on both sides to a leaf shape. Watch Dr. Dilley as he demonstrates the prehistoric technique of flintknapping as he recreates a Solutrean Spearhead.
 Forest Dweller
"The evidence for the Solutrean theory is based on some similarities between the flaking of Solutrean points and Clovis points." No that is simply not true at all James. That hypothesis includes geographical or climate studies, pre-clovis technology and much much more. And there were not just "some similarities" in the technology The objects were so similar that discussion became about parallel evolution of the stonework possibly being the case. I love your channel mate but that is rather disrespectful of Stanfords work. It seems to be the trend to rag on him and he cannot defend himself anymore. Stanford spent decades in Alaska trying to prove the Bering land bridge theory and found nothing. He readily admitted there were multiple migrations happening and seafaring was the likely way this happened. As we now know boating was indeed underestimated hugely anywhere on earth. Stanford also mentioned the cave art of the Solutreans in Europe. Seals being hunted with spears. Halibut and obviously oceanic prey items. So there is no doubt at all the Solutreans went way out in the oceans. The fact Siberian ingress was proven by DNA in Anzick does not exclude other people arriving in America at all. It rather proves what Stanford said. The Solutrean hypothesis is the best evidenced of any by far. How many Polynesian or Siberian artifacts were found in America compared to that?
 J. B.
I have not rejected the Solutrean hypothesis. Ancient man did amazing things, and the Clovis people weren’t related to modern American Indians. They completely disappeared (archeologically) right before the immigration of those Siberians, who settled the Americas.
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  Solutreans: The First Americans Were White Europeans DNA proof

Join James as he takes you back to The Solutrean (22,000 - 18,000BP), a sub period of the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. This relatively short period in the European Palaeolithic saw the production of some of the finest stone tools in the entire Palaeolithic. The tools produced were spearheads, flaked on both sides to a leaf shape. Watch Dr. Dilley as he demonstrates the prehistoric technique of flintknapping as he recreates a Solutrean Spearhead.


Ice Age White Europeans set foot on North America

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SOLUTREANS of EUROPE Settled America First

SOLUTREANS of EUROPE Settled America - Native Legends Describe Race of White Giants of Pre-Flood Stone Age. ~~ Links: 1) 2) Dr. Dennis J. Stanford speaks at the Emerson Center Stanford is director of the Smithsonian's Paleoindian/Paleoecology Program and Head of the Division of Archaeology. Stanford and Smithsonian.

STONE AGE EUROPEANS were the first to set foot on North America, beating American Indians by some 10,000 years, new archaeological evidence suggest

Solutreans:The first Americans. Dr Stanford Emerson centre 2012

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Lecture by Dr. Dennis Stanford, Head of the Archaeology Division, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution at the 2008 Nobel conference at Gustavus Adolphus College.

Solutreans:First Americans:The Ice-Age Discovery of the Americas: Constructing an Iberian Solution

Ice Age White Europeans came to American from Europe along the ice sheets and over time, interbred with the people who crossed the land bridge. That might explain why many Native Americans have European facial features.

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Picture taken from video below

European Ice Age Boats with Sails

Solutreans: The First Americans Were White Europeans DNA proof

 Finding America - Seeking New Paleolithic Paradigms

Ice Age and Clovis Culture - Dennis Stanford

 "Did you know that a sea-faring American tribe explored the shores of North America 7000 years ago? Or that these ancient Americans rivaled their European counterparts in navigational skills several millennia before the Vikings? Robert Sepehr is an author, producer and anthropologist"

  Red Ochre, Red Paint, and the Peopling of the Americas - ROBERT SEPEHR

 Whites in America before the Vikings

Man created the dog 40,000 years ago.

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Dogs 10,000 Years Ago

While its fearsome ancestor, the wolf, was created by natural selection-it is man that created the dog. This film explores the greatest inter-speciesfriendship on Earth over the course of 40,000 years.

 Man Created Dog

Ancient canine DNA reveals diversity of Ice Age dogs

At least five different types of dog with distinct genetic ancestries existed in Europe around 11,000 years ago when humans were still hunter-gatherers, scientists have found.

The analysis is based on DNA sequenced from 27 ancient canine specimens from across Europe, the Near East and Siberia. Researchers say the findings, published in the journal Science, could shed light on the “inextricable bond between dogs and humans”.


  Case studyOpinionProfileSledding dogs are far older than previous

Sledding dogs are far older than previously thought, enabling man to hunt hibernating polar bears

By Anna Liesowska
26 June 2020

Remains from the Zhokhov island in the East Siberian Arctic show trained sled dogs existed almost 10,000 years ago.

The genome of the Zhokhov dog is directly related to the iconic modern-day Siberian Husky, the Alaskan Malamute and Greenlandic sledge dog. Picture: Guide to Greenland

The training of these dogs happened thousands of years earlier than had been appreciated, according to new research published in Science on Friday.

DNA from dog bones from Zhokhov Island indicates that domesticated sled dogs were used by man in the Siberian Arctic at least 9,500 years ago, some 6,500 to 7,500 years earlier than many scientists had believed. 

The genome of the Zhokhov dog is directly related to the iconic modern-day Siberian Husky, the Alaskan Malamute and Greenlandic sledge dog, but can also be traced back to Siberian wolves from 33,000 years ago.


DNA Sheds Light On Ancient History Of Dogs All The Way To The Ice Age

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26,000-Year-Old Footprints In Chauvet Cave: Oldest Evidence Of Human-Canine Relationship

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 Russian man feeds a wild wolf



Sorry to disillusion you,wolves kill many times only for bloodlust. A single wolf sometimes kills a herd of sheep for no rational reason.

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Bear hunting in the Siberian taiga in a den with huskies

 The hunters disturbed two bears in their den in the taiga and hunted them, almost shooting their own dog

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How Dogs (Eventually) Became Our Best Friends


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White people from ancient times used dogs for hunting.

Boar after Boar! WHAT A RUN! Pig hunting Australia

I really enjoyed this video. The dogs are in doggie heaven working together, they love working. Nice also to see the hunters working together with the native people for a common goal. I assume you dispatched the hogs with a strike to the heart? Many thanks for this video!

  WolfKiller dog vs Wolf real fight 2021 | TOP 10 most epic moments catch on Cameras

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Hunter in Spain using dog to kill deer.



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 Many ancient people in Europe protected their campsites with dogs to stop lions trying to enter tents to eat them.

Unhappy Campers Escape Lions At Night

 Unhappy campers surrounded by lions trying to enter their tent to eat them. Not a very pleasant situation to say the least.

Husband: "Honey, do you want to go tent camping in the middle of lion country?" Wife: "Sure babe, that sounds fun. Should we bring the hunting rifles?" Husband: "Nah. We don't need them. We will be perfectly safe from the lion's razor sharp claws in our paper-thin nylon tents. I will just use my big manly shout to scare them away if they try to get in the tents. Then, I will pop my head out of the tent to make sure they are gone...they wouldn't dare bite my face off, for I am the real KING OF THE JUNGLE!"


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How Doggerland Sank Beneath The Waves (500,000-4000 BC) // Prehistoric Europe Documentary




White people unite around shared beliefs, forming the basis for early religion.

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Prehistoric Beliefs - OUT OF THE CRADLE [人類誕生CG] / NHK Documentary

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In the picture above, you can spot the man on the slight left from the middle, he appears to be dressed up in bison skin and horns. The man appears to be acting as the animal in a dance ceremony. I believe our ancestors would dress up as their prey to get close enough to hunt them easier.

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Pre Indo-European peoples of Europe From Cromagnon/Aurignacian modern humans in the upper paleolithic to the Minoan earliest . What could be the oldest lifelike drawings of human faces have been uncovered in a cave in southern France. La Marche: (Magdalenian Cave Art). The cave .

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Cave Paintings and Art.


We've included some wonderful images of various cave painters and paintings and art found within Europe.

Europeans have lived in Europe for thousands of years and about 32,000 years ago painted at Chauvet Cave in France, Europe.

Many people believe that early Europeans lived in caves, but evidence shows that this was not always true because there are not many caves people can live in.  Archaeological sites show that our European Ice Age ancestors made teepee type shelters.

If you had mixed the ocher with animal fat, it would have acted like paint, and you could spread it much easier on the rock face. You can make finer lines or as wide as you want. The fat seeps into the rock and carries the color much better than dry powdered ocher. Ancient peoples did mix ocher/charcoal with fats to use as paint.


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The Worlds First Artists - A View into the Stone Age


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as an artist myself and a huge archeology and history enthusiast, i would probably cry visiting those caves and seeing those paintings. These ancient, beautiful art already send shivers down my spine just from watching this video.
Gordon Frickers
A facinating post thank you. I amazed and in awe of cave artists. I'm widely considered one of the foremost artists in my field today (with two websites) and yet when I see the achievements of 'cave artists' I am humbled by their skill knowing I could not do under their conditions what they did. I sincerely salute their achievements

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Roger Lynch
Interesting are also the more modern studies to Cave Painting. Some, were the light had reached them, even had been used as an astronomical calendar To certain times of years the light spot drops exactly on the same significant picture or drawing detail. So Caveman could follow the exact season changes. 2:02 I seriously like your maped overview about cave findings. It is worthwile to stop the the clip exactliy on this point and give this card for a moment it deserves. Guess East Europe is a bit underrepresented due to the political surcumstances of the COLD WAR age. Not to many studies went back and forth through the Iron Curtain. For example studies to the Bernstein trade routes were comming in fashion just after the Politcal Cnditions had changed because now the inter scientific exchange became much more room.

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Ruth Thinking, Outside.
The skills of the paleo artists in caves is just AMAZING.. some is SO realistic and evocative.. it’s stunning in its own right.. but when you factor in it’s FORTY THOUSAND YEARS OLD ??? just WOW.. so so so amazing.. ??? I love that they keep finding MORE!! It’s FANTASTIC ??

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They painted symbols.


Finger sign language

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  Cave Paintings May Depict Ice Age Sign Language

 Ancient stencils of hands with "mutilated" fingers may actually show a type of sign language used for hunting or silent rituals.


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Carving of European bison

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The Venus statute above represents women of all shapes and sizes; we think these represent female fertility.

From Lascaux to Chauvet in Europe to Australia, in this video discuss the many illustrations of now extinct prehistoric animals and how they can be significant to palaeontologists. Additionally, artwork created by our long dead ancestors can actually tell us a lot about prehistory we wouldn't know otherwise from cultural norms to religious beliefs. So I've taken the time to examine what prehistoric art can tell us. We will talk about everything from Irish Elk in Europe to Marsupial Lions in Australia.

 What can Stone Age art tell us about extinct animals?

When cavemen are more talented than art school graduates.
Personally, I think the most fascinating image is that last image outlining a human hand. If that is truly thousands or tens of thousands of years old, than isn't it amazing that we still do the same thing today? Children playing or in school paint their hands and create a hand print, a way to say "this hand print is mine, I was here", and in a way it's a relate-able message from a person whose lifestyle might not have been like ours, but who thought, felt, and imagined just like any other human. There's something incredible in that, that thousands of years ago another human sat in a cave, and wanted to say "I was here". It's a message that we shouldn't ever lose. When I saw the image, I turned and put my hand up to the wall, and tried to make the same shape, and that's something just about everyone can do. It's simply amazing.

Cave man porn, definitely cave porn. After all if these people had no civilization to say porn is wrong, there'd be tons of it.

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 What can Stone Age art tell us about extinct animals?

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"The sculptures are a unique wonder of the Art world. Two foot long, eighteen inches high, three to four inches thick, modelled in clay, the surface given a wet finish to make them smooth. The finger strokes of the artist can be seen running down the length of the animals. The mane and beard are etched with a tool, but the marking along the jawbones are done by the artist’s fingernail. The horns are rougher and not water treated. The clay has cracks running across the bodies, indicating that the sculptures have dried out, although the clay we were sitting on is still quite pliable". CAVE ART: BISON OF TUC D'AUDOUBERT


 Click on cave painters to enlarge.

Sketch of early humans creating works of art via cave paintings

Cave Paintings Beneath The Sea

Archaeology: The Cave Beneath The Sea (Documentary)

Ice Age Boats

In Northern Spain is the El Castillo Cave has many Ice Ages painting and it cannot be ruled out that some earliest paintings were created by Neanderthals, which were estimated to live in the Cantabrian regions until at least 42,000 to 36,000 years B.P.  The El Castillo Cave has Ice Age paintings that look like boats with sails.

Paleolithic Cave Arts in Northern Spain(1) El Castillo Cave, Cantabria

Lascaux Cave Paintings

Altamira Cave Paintings

Altamira: Magdelanian Cave Art

Lascaux Cave: Palaeolithic Cave Art

Cave Paintings and Sculptures in Europe

Trailer for Werner Herzogs incredible documentary – The Cave of Forgotten Dreams

The Cave of Forgotten Dreams – Trailer

Werner Herzog takes us on an incredible 3-D journey into the Chauvet caves in Southern France.  Enormous chambers with some of the oldest prehistoric art known to man.

Werner Herzog gains exclusive access to film inside the Chauvet caves of Southern France and captures the oldest known pictorial creations of humanity. For full Everest and other mountaineering.

  Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010) Full Documentary by Werner Herzog

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 2018 Hallam L. Movius, Jr. Lecture and Reception Randall White, Professor, Department of Anthropology, New York University

The earliest evidence of artwork made by modern humans, Aurignacian art, was created more than 35,000 years ago and has been found in French, German, and Romanian archaeological sites. Randall White will discuss the rich corpus of Aurignacian painting, engraving, bas-relief sculpture, musical instruments, and personal ornamentation that was studied before World War I in southwest France, along with recent discoveries from classic Aurignacian sites.

  Modern Humans’ Earliest Artwork and Music: New European Discoveries2,610 vie

Thousands of years before developed writing systems, todays Europeans Ice Age ancestors scrawled geometric signs on walls of the caves in Europe.

 Why are these 32 symbols found in caves all over Europe | Genevieve von Petzinger

 Prehistoric Cave Drawings Suggest Early Humans Were Advanced Astronomers


Cave paintings reveal ancient Europeans’ knowledge of the stars

 "Some of the world's oldest cave paintings have revealed how ancient people had relatively advanced knowledge of astronomy. Animal symbols represent star constellations in the night sky, are used to mark dates and events such as comet strikes, analysis from the University of Edinburgh suggests."

  Ancient Cave Paintings Show Early Humans Understood Complex Astronomy

Paleolithic Venus figures

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 'We all know what the perfect woman’s body looks like. Or do we?"

The Ideal Woman’s Body – a Gift of the Gods?

  Timeless Beauty of the 25,000-Year-Old Venus of Brassempouy

Ice Age Venus Figurines of the Eurasian Continent

An exploration of the revolutionary period of prehistory which began when humans abandoned the nomadic hunting and gathering existence they had known for millennia to take up a completely new way of life. The decisive move to farming and herding the nation of permanent settlements, and the discovery of metals setting the stage, for the arrival of the world's first civilization.

Ice Age Europe - Early Modern Cro-Magnon Human Culture

World's Oldest Flute Shows First Europeans Were A Musical Bunch

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  The DONG Of Humanity, Phallic Symbolism In History

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Very interesting information, it shows how many cultures were fairly open about the importance of Fertility and not ashamed to exert it. Though I find a lot of art works containing the 'Dong', I can't understand the censorship and taboo put on these items, why do they always have to hide them away in secret ? many collectors are serious and forced into the closet with labels of obscenity. As a wood carver I'd love to make some examples of these objects and alas it becomes difficult to advertise. Perhaps the more religious, liberals should be less judging. As T. Rex once said, 'Bang a Gong, Get in on'.

One observation I remember reading which I found interesting was that Ancient Greece, though its art was focused around the male form, also was specifically, simultaneously not 'Phallocentric' like some other cultures. Like the Egyptian statues you show which have the common magical association with the erection (probably as a kind of magic charm associated with childbirth), in Greece the 'dong' is depicted as unimposing, with the figures more graceful, dynamic, instead of being jagged and linear. It seems like different figures associated with sex/gender may have been used as charms, maybe idols imbued with powers, talismans, and often probably represented the type of culture, how they survived- which 'force' they became more dependent on, how it conflicted and crossed over into other areas. Erich Neumann's 'Origins of Consciousness' is still one of the best on this, I think, because he goes into the different core images, along with Eliades older work.
Sad to say that Anthropology started to take a dive after a certain point, especially in the 2000s, and a lot of that great work became co-opted and weaponized for military purposes (as detailed in David H Prices 'Cold War Anthropology')


Ancient humans were just as "cultured" as we are today!  While the Kanamara Matsuri in Kawasaki is arguably the most publicized phallus festival, outside of Japan, several rural communities throughout the country still hold a phallus procession when they celebrate the honensai - the harvest festival. My parents once told me that a few towns have been parading a phallus carving around, each year, for well over two thousand years. Usually, a seasoned log is carved into the required shape, with work starting a couple months before the day of the procession.
A wood phallus statue may be ritually burned in a bonfire at the end of the festival, but there exist examples which are erected in a shrine to keep it safe from the weather. The oldest, giant phallus carving that I know of is something like 300 years old and is kept in Aichi Prefecture.



Without ancient dongs....none of us would exist. Thank you ancients, right on.


This is a story about the oldest dong I have ever seen. While I was assigned to Udorn RTAFB. I was on my way home. We had a layover in Bangkok Thailand. While there, I visited the Wat Po, the temple the Reclining Buddha. On the temple grounds, they had a a statue of a dong that was over six feet tall. It was called the God Priapus. Women in Thailand would come and pray to it in hopes that they would get pregnant. They would also leave gifts for it. I don't know how long it had been there. This temple is the home of the largest Buddha in the world, the Reclining Buddha, over 90 feet long.


In Pompei I only saw one Phallus in a wall but it was like every building had a Phallus in a wall painting, of course in the brothel there were in every painting just about. Very amusing video Kayleigh.



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  The world's oldest musical instrument (40,000 BCE) Mammoth ivory and bird bone flutes Germany

 "First Musical Instruments (40,000 BCE) Mammoth ivory and bird bone flutes The discovery suggests the musical tradition was well established in Europe over 40,000 years ago. This mammoth ivory and bird bone flutes are oldest musical instruments ever found. "

 Isturitz, Oxocelhaya and Erberua Caves, in Europe where many prehistoric flutes were found

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  Isturitz, Oxocelhaya and Erberua Caves, where many prehistoric flutes were found

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If you look to the right you can make out two women or one man and women crawling through what appears a small tunnel, they both appear naked, and the last one appears to be wearing a foot, neck, and wrist bracelet.

There are a number of interesting representations of humans and anthropomorphic figures represented in the artefacts found in the cave. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Display, Grottes d'Isturitz et Oxocelhaya

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 This is a superbly realised sketch of a chamois head. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Facsimile, display, Grottes d'Isturitz et Oxocelhaya

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Magdelanian (left): Spear tip with a double bevel. (right): Spear tip with a forked base. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Musée d'Archeologie Nationale et Domaine, St-Germain-en-Laye

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Magdelanian Needle polisher from la grotte d'Isturitz. Dimensions: length 97 mm, width 59 mm, thickness 42 mm. Catalog: MAN77155E1 Photo: Don Hitchcock 2018
Source: Original, Musée d'Archeologie Nationale et Domaine, St-Germain-en-Laye

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(Left): Eyed needle.

(Right) Spear tip with a single bevel, grooved and engraved. This spear tip is of the Lussac-Angles type. These are from the Middle Magdalenian, and are rather short and wide to lanceolate, on a single bevel, sharp at the distal end, with a long unstriated bevel, always on the upper side, and a groove frequently on the underside. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2015
Source: Original, Musée d'Archeologie Nationale et Domaine, St-Germain-en-Laye

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 This phallus from Isturitz has very little documentation, and is mentioned only briefly in scholarly works. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Display, Grottes d'Isturitz et Oxocelhaya

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If you look for the 4th ivory task to the left, you will notice familiar symbols: The swastika is an ancient symbol of good fortune.

Magdelanian Baguettes demi-rondes from Isturitz. Photo: Don Hitchcock 2014
Source: Facsimile, display, Grottes d'Isturitz et Oxocelhaya

Cooking secrets of the Neolithic era revealed in groundbreaking scientific tests

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  Case studyOpinionProfileCooking secrets of the Neolithic era revealed in groundbreaking scientific tests

Cooking secrets of the Neolithic era revealed in groundbreaking scientific tests

By The Siberian Times reporter
01 February 2020

Salmon dishes were a firm favourite on the lower Amur River, while meat was on menu upstream.

Reconstruction of Osipovka Culture vessel (right) and pot shards found at Gasya and Khummi (left). Pictures: Vitaly Medvedev, Oksana Yanshina

Ancient potteries started to appear in the Amur region in the Russian Far East between roughly 16,000 and 12,000 years ago, as the Ice Age slightly eased. 

But what was cooking?

A new international study asks not only why the pots evolved at this time - but examines the type of food they served.

It turns out some ancient Siberian hunter-gatherers survived the Ice Age by inventing pottery which helped them to maintain a fish diet. 

Others used their new pots to cook meat.

 I even think that they came up with the idea of permanent dwellings. One of the earliest permanent dwelling appears in the Osipovka culture as they allowed to stay at the same place during the winter season, having stored big amount of fish. 

‘They had no need to relocate together with migrating animals, as did hunters. Their dwellings were dug into the ground. They dug a round holes, put the pillars and covered them with roof of birch bark, turf. 

‘It is great that the resent research from our international team confirmed our suggestions and helped us to get closer to understanding of this unique and amazing culture.'

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 The Swastika is viewed mostly as a symbol of evil nowadays, but the real origins of this symbols is anything but, it has a history of over 12,000 years and appears in cultures from around the world.

The TRUE Meaning Of The SWASTIKA & Its 12,000 Years Of History

Ice Age White Europeans craved the Swastika on mammoth tusk dated 12, 00 years ago. The ancient European Celtic, Germanic, Scythian, Tocharian, Thracian all used it as "Good tidings." The Swastika is found in India, China, and the northern Americans used it. It would be impossible that people over the world would have the same symbol if not introduced.









Rock Paintings in Spain



Rock paintings discovered in Spain

The stone age Europeans who lived in Spain left many rock paintings of themselves depicting hunting, honey collecting and other activities, women with long hair, fully covered with skirts down to just above their knees, men in real trousers, or sometimes naked. The paintings show that they used bow and arrows and sometimes wore headdresses that may have contained feathers.

Neolithic Cliff PaintingsThis artwork is also referred to as Levantine art. These sites are now classified as World Heritage Sites by Unesco. Rock art shown here have been found at over 700 sites. The paintings feature Europeans and the animals they hunted were in the Eastern part of Spain. These date to the Upper Palaeolithic or, more likely, the Mesolithic periods of the Stone Age.

This artwork spans a large period of time and reflects much cultural change in the area. It shows beautiful images of hunter-gatherer economic systems which over time incorporated the beginnings of settlement showing the use of domesticated cattle and dogs.

 Nets and skis from ancient times


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 Man gathering honey, from the Cuevas de la Araña, Bicorp

  Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean BasinFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


 7,000 years old rock art in Northern Europe.



animal traps

7,000 year old rock art in Norway ?? [S3 - Eps. 28]

In this episode I am quickly leaving North Cape as bad weather is coming this way! It's a fantastic ride back south and this time I stop at Alta to admire thousands of years old rock art. I end my ride in Trømso, a city in Northern Norway with a beautiful setting.


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Loving your videos and glad you took the path to Norway but i doub't this rock art could be 7000 years old because all of Norway would have still been under ice 7000 years ago.
Can't see northern lights without dark sky... Midnightsun during summertime, 4 months with 24h daylight makes it impossible to see the aurora borealies - even though it is still there. September we get some darkness in the evenings where you can see some, but best time for northern lights is in february- march. 2022 has a lot of solar activity, so will be a good year for northern lights
Hallo Noraly. You talked about seeing the northern light, and I can tell that I often have seen it in the winter of 1980/81 when I worked 150 km north of Trondheim in Norway. At best, you must be away from city light, street light, and car light, and of course there must be clear open sky without too many clouds. At first when you see it, it may look like the light from a powerful moving searchlight hitting some clouds (but there are no clouds) very high up and far away, and the colours are mostly green, but can change into blue, white, or maybe even red. It is not steady - the northern light is always moving and changing. But there is a problem - clear weather this time of the year, is normally combined with cold weather, and that is not what I want for a biker like you. Promise me to beware of cold weather. Safe riding - regards Jens from Denmark.
There is also carvings in Nämforsen close to Sollefteå and Tanum north west of Gothenburg in Sweden. Many spectacular carving of ships. The climate in Scandinavia is quite warm considering it's the same latitude as in Anchorage in Alaska, much due to the Golf Stream .
Blue skies.Topography that made the kaiser's head spin. And an ambassador that would make old queen wilhelmina glow with pride :) From patagonia to the north cape, and everywhere in between , WE are all the same ! Though the 'media' would have you believe that those unfortunates with white skin and blond hair, are 'genetically' 'supremacist/racist'.. Just one criticism. That scenery was dying to be viewed from the air ;)
The petroglyphs are carved in pale rock (reported sandstone in "The World Heritage Rock Art in Alta," but possibly dolomite or volcanic tuff) over which a glacier previously traversed and later melted. The glacier left behind a smooth surface of glacial polish (ideal for rock carvings), glacial striations (linear groves in the rock surface which point in the direction the glacier moved most recently before melting), concave-shaped chatter marks (from cobbles at the base of the glacier which were pressed down against and gouged the rock face), and long, smooth scours. Classic glacial geology!

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 "Researchers were undoubtedly smiling over a 14,000-years-old tooth that revealed the oldest known dentistry techniques, dating back to the Late Upper Paleolithic (between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago)."

 Paleolithic Toothache: Oldest Dentistry Revealed in 14,000-Year-Old Tooth of Young Man

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Testing twined clothing in Mesolithic

 In 2008–2010, some experiments, testing possibilities of (re)constructing twined clothing, were held. They were based on a find from the middle–late Neolithic settlement of Šventoji 2B (Lithuania), dated back to ~4000–2900 BC. The found two specimens were made of lime bast. They were compared with other extant European twines of similar or close periods. Three pieces of rectangular shape were produced, in order to test some technical and functional questions. In 2012, it was decided to come back to one of the objects, which had inspired some construction and wearing possibilities of the (re)constructed twined clothing.

It was an engraving on the aurochs bone, depicting five anthropomorphic figures, which was found in Ryemarksgård settlement (Denmark) and dated back to ~8000 BC. A set of photos, testing various variations of wearing the three pieces of clothing, was taken. There were tested more than 25 wearing possibilities, both male and female. Then it was tried to find out poses and actual pieces of clothing, which would best match the depicted figures. According to the congruous silhouette and constructional lines of the clothing, it was presumed, that most of the figures wore a rectangular long cloth (“a cloak”), just in 3-4 different ways. Some of the figures possibly wore a shorter rectangular cloth (“a skirt”) underneath. Repeating parallel lines of the depicted clothing clearly indicate twining, and actual qualities of the (re)constructed twines do confirm the indication. Thus, it is highly possible, that twined clothing was produced and worn by some Mesolithic communities, i.e. much earlier than the dates of the extant finds had allowed presuming.

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Primitive Technology Hunter Gatherer




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When Time Team Found Incredibly Rare 5000-Year-Old Stone Age Tools | Time Team | Odyssey

 Stone age finds are incredibly rare in Britain. As such, this neolithic site buried under a holiday resort is hugely exciting for the time team. Join Tony and the gang as they uncover some of their oldest ever finds.


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  Tranchet Axeheads: The First Axeheads in British Prehistory

 Dr. James Dilley explores one of the first types of hafted axe in Britain: The Tranchet Axe. Dating to the Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age), these axes are unlike later examples, but what is a tranchet? Why did people make axes like this? And how do you make one? We look at the meaning behind the word “Tranchet” and some of the possible origins. As well as making a couple of examples, he also tests a Tranchet axe in some tree felling.

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  Making Pine Pitch: The Woodsman's Glue. How I make Pine Pitch Glue



The World’s First Temple, Gobeklitepe


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 NEW: 11,400-Year-Old Karahan Tepe Archaeological Update: November 2022 | Ancient Architects

 As you may know, things are moving quickly with regards to Turkish archaeology, and the one project that really stands out is Taş Tepeler, an upland area in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, near the city of Şanlıurfa.

Taş Tepeler means ‘Stone Hills’ and it consists of a number of Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites, including Gobekli Tepe, Sefer Tepe, Harbetsuvan Tepesi, and the incredible Karahan Tepe.

Karahan Tepe is dated to between 11,400 and 10,200 years ago and in this video I’ll be showing you the latest update on the site – all the new finds and all the news from the latest excavations as I have attempted ti transcribe and translate the words of site lead archaeologist, Professor Necmi Karul.

Karul recently took part in a 4-and-a-half-hour presentation on the Arkeolojihaber YouTube channel, where a number of archaeologists discussed the latest findings and most recent work at 7 of the 12 Tas Tepeler sites. What I'm presenting in this video comes directly from this presentation.

Arkeolojihaber was founded in 2009 by a team of dedicated archaeologists who wished to convey the latest archaeological news from Turkey in a socially responsible way. Follow their social media and subscribe to their YouTube channel by following the links below:

Arkeolojihaber YouTube:    / arkeolojihaber  

Arkeolojihaber Twitter:

Arkeolojihaber Facebook:

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 Top 10 Amazing Artifacts from Karahan Tepe | Sanliurfa Museum Exhibition, Turkey | Megalithomania


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 Göbekli Tepe: The Place That Rewrote History

Video info: On our fourth stop on our tour of the historical and archaeological sites of Turkey we visit the ancient ruins of the oldest temple in the world. Today known as Gobekli Tepe, the "Potbelly Hill" has been the site of one of the most significant archaeological discoveries of the past century. Yielding the remains of an ancient ceremonial center that dates back a shocking 11,500 years. These ruins are home to elaborate carvings, massive stone constructions and other artifacts that shed light on the lives of ancient people. Join me as we attempt to piece together one of the best known but least understood sites in our ancient past.

I am so happy that people are exploring Turkey and sharing it. I lived there from 1998-2002 and I was obsessed with all things ancient. At the time my local professor didn't even know that Chatal Hoyuk was being excavated after the Mallard debacle! We went to Chatal Hoyuk for a visit and it was not much more than a tent and small museum (in the middle of winter). We knew in our hearts there was so much more. I would love to go back and visit :-)


  The World’s First Temple, Gobeklitepe … a pre-historic site, about 15 km away from the city of Sanliurfa, Southeastern Turkiye. What makes Gobeklitepe unique in its class is the date it was built, which is roughly twelve thousand years ago, circa 10,000 BC.

Gobeklitepe | The Oldest Temple of the World

 Gobekli Tepe - Turkey - Trip Historic

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Celebrate the summer solstice at Stonehenge - 360 Video

 Every year thousands gather at the mysterious prehistoric site in southern England to watch sunrise on the longest day of the year.


Operation Stonehenge What Lies Beneath 1of 2

Stonehenge on the Salisbury Plains east of London, England is a prehistoric Megalithic structure; it simply means it is a structure made of large stones. If you're standing at Stonehenge you'll see some mounds only a short distance away which are possibly where high ranking people were buried.

Stonehenge is the Tip of the Iceberg

 "23 November 2017. Ordinary Meeting of Fellows. 'Science and Stonehenge', lecture by Prof Michael Parker Pearson FSA."

 November 2017: SAL OM, (Mike Parker Pearson FSA)

"Eminent archaeologist Mike Parker Pearson gives the Council for British Archaeology's 37th annual Beatrice de Cardi lecture on the Stonehenge landscape."

  Mike Parker Pearson Stonehenge Lecture

Below Mound near Stonehenge



Below West Kenneth long barrow.

A short drive from Stonehenge you'll come across West Kenneth long barrow, situated near Avebury, Wiltshire which has chambers which served as tombs and is the largest of its kind in England. Some of these tombs seem to have been used by the same family for several hundreds of years. What is striking about it is that it was built about 400 years prior to Stonehenge using stone blocks slabs which formed the ceiling. It once again demonstrates the ingenuity of early man.



Silbury Hill 

 Silbury Hill, shows an amazing ability for the immense technical skill of European people's ancestors, even in prehistoric times. The builders must have been able to call on a large and organised labour force and to exercise broad ranging control across the southern area of Britain. Constructed approximately 4750 years ago, it is estimated to have taken 18 million man hours to build.


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Sweden's most mysterious rocks ?? [S3 - Eps. 17]

In this episode my Honda CB500x "Ronin" and I are riding from Denmark into Sweden. We explore the capital of Denmark, Copenhagen on the way and also admire the mystical rocks at Ales Stenar, Sweden's own Stonehenge...


The Iceman


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The Iceman- 5000 Year Old Mummy



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 Otzi -Iceman lived at the beginning of the Bronze Age.

The Iceman is older than the Egyptian pyramids and Stonehenge. He lived during the Copper Age, a period of the late Neolithic. He was still using stone tools but owned an innovative and very valuable copper axe. The skill of extracting and processing metal had recently arrived in Europe from Anatolia in Turkey.  The advent of copper marked the beginning of the Bronze Age.                                          
Anatolia, also known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. Wikipedia 

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At the time of Ice Man some Whites lived in villages in lakes.

An interesting an often overlooked subject which concerns the local communities living in the regions surrounding the Alps in the time at which the "Ice Man" lived.

The Iceman's World

The picture above taken from video above.

A later autopsy revealed the iceman was killed by an arrow.

Iceman Documentary | Otzi - Iceman Murder Mystery in the Italian Alps

Iceman Documentary | Otzi – Iceman Murder Mystery in the Italian Alps | Copper Age English subtitles

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How to make Otzi items

Otzi the iceman arrow part 1,how to make 5000 year old primitive archery hunting arrows


Primitive Archery Copper Age Yew Longbow Part 1 - Otzi the Iceman ...



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Runes: Facts And History About Odin Secret Language

  Runes Were Just As Advanced As Roman Alphabet Writing – New Study



 Archaeologists say they have uncovered Britain's "Pompeii" after discovering the "best-preserved European Bronze Age dwellings ever found" in the country.

ᴴᴰ [Documentary] Britains Pompeii

Eastern European Slavics Tribes and The Huns …

European Celtic Tribes

 The Hittitie Nation founders Came from Europe

The Sea People came from Europe

 Caucasian Egyptians & Debunking Afrocentrism…

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 The Beautiful Women of Bronze Age Europe

Bronze Age Europe saw the increasing expression of individual and group identity through clothing, hairstyles, and objects of personal ornamentation. But it’s in the artistic tradition of the civilisations of the Aegean that we most clearly see the emergence of ideals of beauty that we well recognise even today. So how was female beauty represented? What jewellery and clothing did they wear? How did women enhance and emphasise their beauty? How were women represented in Minoan and Mycenaean art? And what did beauty mean to the people of Bronze Age Europe?


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I know this might sound childish, but hear me out. I am an art Historian and as such I notice patterns and similarities between artworks. I haven't had the time to do much research on this, so this is a preliminary theory, but I think the rosettes on the Mycenaean plaster face goddess are meant to represent the nipple on the breast. If you look at the fresco seen at 10:24 and compare it to 19:06, they are painted the same way, a thicker dot in the center surrounded by smaller dots. Now, this makes sense to me as the breast is by which a mother feeds their child and so has a very important function. Breasts and "child rearing" hips have been emphasized on artworks depicting females for millenia. It would make sense to me that a mother goddess or fertility goddess would wear the design of the most important body part that facilitates the feeding/child care part of procreation. This being said, I am also aware that a majority of the frescos associated with the Minoans and similar groups are touched up. Most of the original paint is gone. The ransom, jagged chunks are what's left and what's been painted in is interpretation, meaning that from the little bit of research I was able to do while listening to this video, the painted nipple may just be an interpretation and I'm making connections that don't exist. It's still absolutely fascinated to get a glimpse at those before us and absolutely infuriating that we'll never know for sure.


Re: red painted dots on the women's faces - Tunisian brides still adorn their faces this way in traditional weddings. Maybe this is a look women have always been partial to? It appears through the ages all over the world. It does look hot.
It strikes me as odd that the fashion of Minoan women in these depictions hasn't been interpreted as pants rather than skirts or dress. In so many various art pieces displayed or referenced here, there seems to be an obvious seam dividing the legs. The curve and angle of the material as depicted is obviously shaped to show the individual legs like a split skirt or hippy pants, rather than one whole piece of material with gathers or pleats. I sew couture fashion and see a lot of fashion illustration. It seems to me, these women weren't wearing pants!!

Ancient Greeks Apartan

Documentary | Ancient Greeks Golden Age | BBC Documentary

 Documentary | Ancient Greeks Spartan | BBC Documentary | National Geographic History Chann

real brest


 In this episode of The Ultimate Fashion History, "it's all Greek to me"! And it will be to you, too, as we look at clothing in The Minoan, Mycenaean, Hellenic, and Hellenistic eras. Enjoy.


Pagan Things We All  Do

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  Activities That Can Be Traced Back to Pagan Culture

 Links between holiday traditions and pagan culture are well established - and occasionally celebrated - but there are also a lot of misconceptions about paganism that make the word itself a bit taboo.

Paganism isn't something to be feared or shunned. In Latin, "pagan" was simply the word for villager or civilian. Religious connotations that developed during the Middle Ages made pagans into heathens rather than outsiders.

With all that in mind, there continues to be a pervasive presence of paganism in the modern world.

Queen of the Elves
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Forget the queen of elves, we prefer watching the "Queen of Moto" Noraly of Itchy Boots. Finally in Iceland...I'm so excited. Thanks for taking us along with you my queen
I am certain the Queen of the Elves spied on you while you were walking around, and as famous as you are she was excited to see you visit, and bestowed upon you a huge blessing,
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The Beltaine Festival, an ancient pagan fire ceremony and celebration at another sacred site in Ireland. A Druid earth Magick ritual from over 5000 years ago being reenacted to honor indigenous traditions of the Celtic people. Witches practicing Witchcraft, Wizards, Magicians, & Merlin.
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These fertility festivals date back to 500 BC, Achaemenid Empire. Their religion was Mithraism, and the fire was a holly element. So, when the Romans invade Persia, they took Mithraism with them and it became their religion. After the world war, II archeologists found Mithraism temples around London, which were ruined by Christians. So, this festival comes from Iran. It is exactly what you described. They jump on the fire, wear red clothes, and believe in the power of fire and god.
I am so craving this kind of community and ritual. In my part of Northern germany people are still coming together and lighting fires in the beginning of may, but there's no intention behind it. It's an empty Ritual and people are just getting mindlessly drunk.
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 Samodivas are woodland fairies found in Bulgaria and Eastern European folklore and mythology, commonly depicted as ethereal maidens with long hair, and in some cases, wings. In Macedonian folklore, they were said to inhabit oak or willow trees, and in Romanian mythology they are known as Iele, with magic skills and attributes similar to nymphs found in Greek mythology, sometimes reported to have been seen in the springs or at crossroads. Another important aspect of the Balkan myths surrounding Samodivas is their dance, with similarities to ancient Thracian and Greek legends, which included songs and dances performed by fire-priestesses.
The Varna culture belongs to the later Neolithic of northeastern Bulgaria, dated ca. 4400-4100 BC. The Balkans, also known as the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe.
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Interesting to me the similarity to Irish dancing, certainly the fairies, nature spirits & connections to seasons, especially spring. What I see in your presentations is a culture of people with fair hair & complexion having been around much of the earth at one time. Of course much of the dating of this seems to be at the end of the last ice age. The supposition you seem to have is that these people may have been here at a much earlier time. When the cataclysmic times came, with floods or other turmoil, some survived in caves. So we cannot be clear how far back in time these people were here. Yet, this so closely follows the early, by hundreds of thousands of years, timeline given by the Annunaki story.
The Tribe of Dan are the “tribe of gods” from Irish history called the Tuatha de Dannan. Irish historians speak about descending from Scythian kings.
This reminded me so much of the folk-dance I was taught as a child, and I smiled when you used a clip of people in Swedish Folk costumes.
Robert! Being an Appalachian, and having a daughter with fiery red hair; deep-green emerald eyes, and ivory skin like some of the Ladies featured here on your video - not to mention, countless nephews, nieces, cousins, Aunts and Uncles similarly featured...! - I can't help but see the 'connection' with what's locally called "clog-dancing", and with the infamous, historical, mis-guided "Christian" persecution of ANY women found dancing at midnight, in the forests, doing no thing more harmful than what I'd say - and they, too HAVE said - is...: praising 'God' (Whoever She, He or 'It' IS) in the song, and with the dance, and amoung the company of other True believers in that Truth.
I am born in the south of Romania. In my grandparents village the Samodiva was the most frightening word mentioned in my childhood. The name I guess is from Sanskrit Sama Deva. We also have 'hora' since immemorial times. My people is Dacian/Thracian. We have the same customs and traditional clothes since BC era. The same arian symbols are found here from BC era until now - you can find them on wooden gates and on traditional clothes and pottery. You should study us. Also, our language, it is said that is very influenced by latin, but I found many words similar in sanskrit, which is much older than latin. In sanskrit and actual spoken romanian the same word -form and meaning - and in latin, a corrupted form, and vaguely similar meaning.
I’m German (Swabian) I have very long blonde hair and have never cut it, I feel like there is a certain power to long hair. It feels like it enables you to become more receptive to energies if that makes sense? I have bad nightmares always that someone will cut my hair, it’s my biggest fear. I grew up near the Black Forest and always felt so drawn to nature and the spirits that live there because I always would take long walks wether it be spring or snowing. I love watching these videos on because it just confirms some speculations I had about certain things. Great work Robert
Great Video. I hope Robert will cover in greater detail the indigenous Proto-European people of the Balkans, as described as the tribes in the video that the Indo-European (Scythians, Sarmatians) mixed with. The indigenous Paternal Haplogroup I2 Cro-Magnon peoples that were present back to the upper Paleolithic era today known as Vlachs, Morlochs, Aromanians and Dalmatians. Their descendants are present throughout the Balkans and most of Europe.

 The Minoans on the Crete Island

The Minotaur's island




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Did The Amazons Really Exist? Truth Behind Myths Of Fierce Female Warriors



The White Roman Empire

 The preface last 14 minutes and the main text starts at 14:47 mark. The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement, was written by the celebrated English historian Edward Gibbon. [History] The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume 1, Part 1, Audiobook

[History] The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Volume 1, Part 1 ...

The main text starts at 01:28 mark. [History Audiobook] History of Julius Caesar (by Jacob Abbott)

[History Audiobook] History of Julius Caesar11,820 views

Julius Caesar Crossing the Rhine

Biggest city in the western world until London during the Industrial Revolution and the biggest city the world had ever seen until it was supposedly equaled by Chang'an in China in 700.. But that assumes the 1 million population number. If Rome actually had 2 million residents, it remained the biggest city that the world had EVER seen until the 1840-1850 when London topped 2 million!!!! London passed Beijing in the late 1820's and had grown to almost 2 million by 1840. It remainded the biggest city of the world until it was passed by the New York metro area in 1925.

Ancient Rome

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100 Proofs The Israelite's Were White (REPOST)

 Many dug up Egyptian mummies from the early dynasties show them with distinct white features, such as blue eyes, blonde or red hair.

White German Tribes
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Great video, very informative. I do wonder though, you make it seem as if the general depiction of germanic warrior or Barbarians is that of dumb, simplistic brutes. I have literally NEVER seen this depiction in any popular media. Barbarians are always shown as the clever underdogs, unforgiving, but ultimately good at heart. On the opposite end, Romans are always shown as evil and arrogant. This video makes it seem like contemporary people adopted the "civilized" Roman view of barbarians, I mean everyone understands the stereotypical dumb raging barbarian but I have never seen anyone actually hold this view, aside from actors portraying Roman senators.

   White German Tribes

There are books written by people who lived during the time of the Roman empire about the Germanic tribes who lived in today's Germany, Holland and Demark. The Germania (Latin: De Origine et situ Germanorum, literally The Origin and Situation of the Germans), written by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus around 98, is an ethnographic work on the Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. Germania fits squarely within the tradition established by authors from Herodotus to Julius Caesar. Tacitus himself had already written a similar essay on the lands and tribes of Britannia in his Agricola. The Germania begins with a description of the lands, laws, and customs of the Germanic people; it then segues into descriptions of individual tribes, beginning with those dwelling closest to Roman lands and ending on the uttermost shores of the Baltic, among the amber-gathering Aesti, the primitive and savage Fenni, and the unknown tribes beyond them. (Summary from Wikipedia.) [The Pre-History of the Germanic peoples] Germania (Ancient History Audiobook) by Publius Cornelius Tacitus (Roman historian).

The Pre History of the Germanic Peoples Germania Ancient ... - YouTube



 European Germanic Tribes

Armanius lead a 1st time unified German army in 9-AD, in the Toutoburg Forest Germania defeats 3 Roman legions(20,000men) lead by Quintilius Varus. History channel "Warriors".

There was no Germany, the area called Germania was divided by many tribes.

  Germania defeats Roman oppressors, WARRIORS

The Germanic tribes were not "undisciplined". They lived an entire culture of constant impending combat and they were, also to a man, ENTIRELY disciplined as warriors. They used formations, spears, slings, axes, shields, swords AND javelins, so essentially all the same weapons the Romans used minus siege weaponry. They even used formations, specifically the boars head.

Since Thomas Gordon's translation of Tacitus' work on the ancient Germans is in the public domain.

Tacitus on Germany

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1000 AD - A Tour of Europe / Medieval History Documentary

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 White Vikings

The west coast of Greenland was the site of a thriving Viking colony for hundreds of years. Originally settled by explorers who had bravely sailed across the treacherous North Atlantic from their homes in Scandinavia, the Greenland outpost grew into a farming community of thousands.

The Lost Vikings

The crap history we have been fed of "Columbus discovering America" is CRAP History.....the VIKINGS have been 100% archaeologically PROVEN to landed and settled in Canada, the Canadian Arctic, Greenland and Iceland over 400 YEARS before the voyage of Columbus to.....Puerto Rico....! So you can cancel that fake news chapter from ALL history books........and it is also a fact that Chinese artefacts have been found in Mexico and California.....some 650 years before Columbus ran smack dab into Puerto Rico......more to follow.....and there has just been archaeological evidence of early settlement in Alaska and northern British Columbia Canada.....some 1600 years before Columbus stuck his sea-sick nose into Puerto Rico.....

The Ancient History of the Vikings 1

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Vikings - Helvegen

No blood, no battles, no violence. Just a peaceful video about departures and homecomings of the northmen :) MUSIC: Wardruna - Helvegen. CHECK OUT lyric video here:
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Bronze Age Vikings | Prehistoric Scandinavian Rock Art

 Prehistoric Scandinavian rock art displays scenes of warriors and long, narrow boats. Are these figures showing some kind of Bronze Age Vikings? The world famous ancient petroglyphs in Sweden, dating to the Nordic Bronze Age, portray a world of sword-wielding warriors and their ships. But these figures - holding aloft axes and spears and shields - are usually said to be carrying out rituals, not warfare. Is that true? Are there any scenes of violence here amongst the thousands of weapon-bearers? If this is about ritual then what were the rituals for? And what can all this tell us about the lives of these seaborne Nordic warriors who lived 3500 years ago?

top right @ 4:38 is very similar to the a mammoth tusk from Gontzi in the Ukraine its has what appears to me a boat with 2 people with water reflection' I did a satellitet view of the area because i though it may represent a map a river ? there was an area that had a 2 river that joined &empted into the black sea which could be a representation of the river but its 1000s of years older upper late Palaeolithic ; Marshak proposed in his book the roots of civilisation(fig 5 a,b) they may represent time of journey markers using the moon, woman reckon birth of children as native Americans did ?
One more half attempt at deciphering the past ,the canoe's, they are clearly full size ships in some of the rock art , but you quickly dismiss that fact , what about the horned helmets , no connection to the people's of the med . you talk about trade , but quickly say it was back water trading not over vast distances , you were close on some idea's , but failed to make the connection on others , to bad some of this was on the right track to find the truth , but you are going to have to step outside the box , and look at it one more time.thanks good luck.
Herbs Medical Care

Medical Care in the Viking Age

Dear Viking Answer Lady:

I have a question about how the Norse would treat wounds and lacerations. In The 13th Warrior" (maybe not the best reference, I know) they used boiled-down cow's urine to keep a wound from getting infected. Other than that I have a hard time finding anything dealing with how the Norse treated their sick, or wounds in particular
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Living in the Iron Age.
Living in the Iron Age

Living in the Iron Age

In 1978 12 adults and 3 children were selected from around 1000 volunteers for the ...

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Bog Body Of The Elling Woman: Was She Sacrificed To The Gods Because Of Climate Change?


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 Hello and Welcome to Motherland! This channel has been created by Robyn (aka Critical Condition) and Rebecca (Blonde in the Belly of the Beast) as a resource for pro-natalist people who are interested in following our journey into motherhood. We hope that you will join us in this incredible journey to become mothers and that you will find something of value to your own life along the way. All support is greatly appreciated.
My friend only managed one feeding a day to be breas milk and she had to pump the entire day. Im still in awe at her dedication to pump on and off for the entire day just to give her son one meal a day
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As a young boy on the farm, before I was allowed a BB gun , an uncle showed me & helped me make this sling. I was amazed at the distance it could be accurate to, probably 50+ yards I really don’t remember exactly. And it didn’t take long before I got very accurate with it. It could easily take a rabbit, squirrel and rats. Great silent weapon
Tip #1: Only do about 2-3 spins before releasing the stone, this way you mitigate a sort of pre-shot anxiety while improving consistency. Heck you can do just 1 spin or even 4, just make sure you pick a number below 5 and stick with it. (I personally just do 2 spins, 1st is just to gain momentum) Tip #2: If you can make ammo, make them football shaped, those are the most aero dynamic. I used to make mine in my grandpa's forge out of scrap steel, though clay ammo also works well :)
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romans used
Great video! As a balearic islander I would like to add a couple bits of information: There's another technique for slinging, you can spin the sling vertically on your side and realse it at a 45 degree upward angle to make a parabolic shot and make stones rain on the enemies. Also, ancient balearic mercenaries used to wear 3 slings of different sizes on them for different distances and projectiles and the legend says they were capable of sinking boats from the top of cliffs. Not the most accurate weapon but certainly a cheap and fun to use one
Guide from a Celtic open air museum here. To my knowledge Roman glandes (lead shot) could pierce shields and helmets. They also used whistling glandes. Those were modified glandes with a little drilled hole in them. Also when the Romans tried to conquer the Balearic Islands they had to put up extra shielding on the ships because of the amount of stones slung in their direction. The Balears were famous for their slinging skills. They were hired as mercenaries through the Classical Antique world. So too where the slingers of Rhodos.

Balearic Islands - Wikipedia

The official name of the Balearic Islands in Catalan is Illes Balears, while in Spanish, they are known as the Islas Baleares. The ancient Greeks usually ...
As David said to Goliath... "Typical Philistine, bringing a sword to a sling fight"
Some of the Roman sling bullets even had taunting messages molded in to them. One of my favorites is "Here's a sugar plum for you!"
Herbal Remedies
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The sheila na gig is originally found on the doorways of Hindu temples and homes. One touched the vulva before entering.
Shepherd Dogs

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KANGALS vs WOLVES : Shepherd dogs organise to push back wolves ! Night infrared monitoring

 Kangals vs wolves . how do shepherd dogs organize to push back the wolves at night . this video is a monitoring study of kangal pack behaves at night in the flock basic on the hierarchy levels dogs take different positions . When the The dangerous came close they regroup the force and push back the wolf . Its Night monitoring by Infrared Cameras Realise by French team.

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People in the past had a different attitude towards animals than what we have today. That is because various animals attacked their livestock and family members; therefore, they were relieved to get rid of them to gain safety for one another. 

 Camera record: wild dog killed lamb

The other lambs watching there friend get mauled like: RUN JERRY RUNNN!!!!!1!!11!!!!
This is the harsh reality of life . There are many lambs bt did not stand and fight against the dogs . They all run away . Unity and bravery is the main thing to stand up against a common enemy .
The harsh reality of this video gives an excellent example of the nature of human beings in the modern world. The sheep represent the people; they are what we call conservatives; they will rarely help their people, and those that do are what we call nationalists. The dogs represent socialism/communism and liberalism. They will kill for the sake of killing or kill and injure and have no remorse for the damage they have done. Giving the note that families in the past were nationalist because they would not have survived otherwise, their families and tribes came first.
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Wolves will kill five head of cattle and eat one letting the rest rot.
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Would never have believed this if I hadn't seen this video. This should be shown to Government Ministers to overturn the recent change in shooting crows and pigeons. They are very intelligent the crows etc, must have taken years for them to learn how to do this, just like in Australia where they learnt to put poisonous toads on their backs and eat them from the belly. Never shot an animal myself, but Im fully supportive of the Farmers on this one.

Quick History of Europe

 This video shows the borders and populations of each country in Europe, for every year since 400 BC. Vassal states and colonies are not included in the count of a country's population.

  The History of Europe: Every Year

 This video shows the rulers of European countries, for every year since 400 BC. 

The Rulers of Europe: Every Year


Guanche Canary island whites


 Kalash the White Tribe


I do not advise you what you should believe or not believe.

But I do advise you that we all need to learn as much as we can about everything we can.

Because one thing I have learned in my life is that most of what we have ever been taught has been a lie.



What did Plato really mean with this quote 'Those who are too ... › What-did-Plato-really-mean-wi...
20 okt. 2017 — What did Plato really mean with this quote "Those who are too smart to engage in politics are punished by being governed by those who are dumber"?
7 svar  ·  12 röster: Plato used Socrates to voice this opinion (or rather, it actually was Socrates’ opinion) ...
Plato's quote "one of the penalties of refusing to participate in politics is that you end up being governed by your inferiors". still appropriate?
 Plato quote "Those who are too smart to engage in politics are punished by being governed by those who are dumber"?
Plato quote “The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.”?

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Stephen Shenfield

Yes. One of the reasons why we have such an ignoramus for president is the reluctance of many educated and intelligent people to get involved in politics, feeling perhaps that it is beneath them.

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James G Bridgeman

The best qualified will be reluctant to serve as guardians but will be forced to serve under penalty of being ruled by their inferiors.

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30 svar
2 juni 2020

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What a rich history. Truly sad that Europe is dying now and it's native tribes genocided by a small rootless international clique.
 killer Dude
2050: Islam conquers West, South and Nord-Europe and makes kids with blonde hair sex slaves till there are no blondes left.

Genocide is promoted by Globalist promoting Marxism World Govenrment

How Every White Country is Being Forced to Have Third Immigration Invaders to replace and Genocide Europeans

“A Shared Responsibility” – How Every White Country is Being Forced to Have Third World Immigration

I think you underestimate that fact that Communism was created by Judaism.

“Some call it Marxism – I call it Judaism.”
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise, in the American Bulletin of May 15, 1935

“The revolution in Russia is a Jewish revolution”
The Maccabean (New York), Nov. 1905, p, 250

“Jewry is the mother of Marxism.”
Le Droit de Vivre, May 12, 1936

“Judaism is Marxism, communism”
Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 64

“The communist soul is the soul of Judaism.”
Harry Waton, A Program for the Jews and an Answer to All Anti-Semites (New York: Committee for the Preservation of the Jews, 1939), p. 143

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The Globalist and mainstream media promote white genocide

Kalergi-Plan Part II - The "JQ" & Hypocrisy


Muhammad Ali Vehemently Disapproves Of Race Mixing

The Race-Mixing Controversy

A Message To Race Traitor White Women

Most European languages are from a single language called the Indo-European Language.

 The Indo-European Connection

Europeans who want to teach Europeans their culture need to build a Community Based Organization

Community Organization and Building - 3-30-16 Lecture

The article on right. The B'nai B'rith Jewish Community Based service organization operates nationally and internationally and represents Jews only. Many Jews are nationalist behind the scenes; and in public they promote conservative, liberal, socialist, communist ideas.

Jewish organizations are collective community based organizations, bringing together many groups under national and international congresses all over the world.

Jews are united nationally, internationally and are a nation within a nation with their own government. 

White gentile organizations in the United States, Australia, Britain, and Europe are not community based organizations, they are conservative structured.  Conservative organizations are not collectives and do not build Anti-Defamation organizations to fight for people rights and  do not promote community services to their people.  They do not have national or international congresses to unite them. 

Alex Jones (Infowars) said conservative will not defeat the globalist only nationalist will do that. Alex was talking about national ideas and organizations.


White Indigenous Rights

Law Books GavelWhat are the use of laws when they are not enforced by governments, and these laws are broken so that Globalists can achieve their aims? For example; the German Government has given non-European invaders preference in the job market with " integration laws."  The law will offically create 100,000 jobs which will be exclusively allocated to illegal refugees, even though there are currently 1.8 million unemployed German citizens.  The government may say that these refugees are "legal" but to many Germans they are illegal invaders.  The sad fact is that the conservative movement in Germany did not build community based organizations and no Anti-Defamation organization to fight legal entities to fight for European rights in the courts.  This seems crazy because we all know that from time to time we need lawyers.  If you have lawyers, for  you can challenge the Race Relations Act, and campaign for Indigenous Rights in the European Supreme Court in The Hague ( Netherlands).  You can also approach other governments worldwide to fight for your rights and their rights.  There are many avenues available to you to fight for indigenous rights.  Marching in rallies has little or no effect against Government Dictatorship that do not care about what people think.   "We The People" must start to have our Government  represent us against the Globalist false Governments and set up a Swiss system of direct democracy, — The Canton system.  Please refer to our article Switzerland's System of Direct Democracy

 United Nations Indigenous Rights

The United Nations Indigenous Laws in practice are only applied to indigenous minorities.  It is discrimination against the majority of populations who are also indigenous to their regions.  European white Caucasians are indigenous to the British Isles and the whole continent of Europe even to the Urals in Russia and beyond, as well as just inside the Western border of China. People have lived  in Europe for 1.8 million years.  Many people say that some neanderthals gave birth to modern Europeans in Russia, Europe and the Middle East. Our Neanderthal ancestors and our Ice-Age European descendants have been living in Europe and Central Asian areas for thousands of years. We should be given self-determination which means, we have the right to control who lives in our lands, a right to remove people who are not indigenous from our lands. European Caucasians have indigenous rights over mineral deposits, a right to preserve our languages, culture, and history.

Europeans are indigenous to Europe and areas east of Russia, they have been living in these areas from the dawn of the European Caucasian race. European Caucasians did not come from Africa. 

 The following videos: Europe the Birthplace of Mankind

Europe was the birthplace of mankind, not Africa, scientists find


Humans lived 1.8 million years ago in Georgia

GEORGIA The birth of Human race Caucasus Homo erectus georgicus 1.8 million years

White European Caucasians lived in Europe 42,000 years ago Depictions of humans in Europe from 15,000 42,000 years before present

Those who help third world immigration (invasion) into Europe and promote the multi-racial society are promoting GENOCIDE, should be brought to justice!.  Yet how do you bring people to justice when the conservative movement will not use the laws to stop governments from promoting genocide.?

Merkel's right-wing opposition AfD Party in Germany says she belongs in court for the Non European invasion into Europe.

Watch: Merkel’s Right-Wing Opposition Says She Belongs in Court


Governments will abuse the law because there is no counter-balance.  They will continue to do this until they are challenged.  You will continue to lose your rights and it can only be reversed when a European Anti-Defamation League is set up to fight for all people's rights.  

For more background information please read our articles on 'European Racial Pride, 'Teach Europeans about their Heritage' and  'Ancient Caucasians in America.'


Our mission is to create  Anti-Defamation Council connected globally in every country to fight and uphold the following United Nations laws.  In the UN article, it outlines various organizations you can contact for assistance. 

United Nations convention on the prevention and punishment of genocide:
“…acts committed with the intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national ethnic, racial or religious group…”

Governments in Western countries, media, and anti-European organizations have been campaigning to genocide the Europeans worldwide by reducing their birth rate from 2.8 down to 1.6, taking their rights away, flooding their countries with third world invasion and promoting interracial marriage.

United Nations Indigenous Laws Declaration, Article 26 states that
"indigenous peoples have the right to the lands, territories, and resources they have traditionally owned, occupied or otherwise used or acquired. Entire country."

The majority of the world's population are indigenous to the lands they live on or their ancestor homelands, for example, the Chinese are indigenous to China, the Black population of North Western Africa are indigenous to that region, European Caucasians are indigenous to Europe and Arab Caucasians are indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa.  The United Nations indigenous laws should give equal rights to all racial groups that are the original inhabitants who lived in the region for thousands of years. 

United Nations convention on the prevention and punishment of genocide:
“…acts committed with the intent to destroy in whole or in part, a national ethnic, racial or religious group…”

Governments in Western countries, media, and anti-European organizations have been campaigning to genocide the Europeans worldwide by reducing their birth rate from 2.8 down to 1.6, taking their rights away, and flooding their countries with third world invasion and promoting interracial marriage.

United Nations International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
" Considering that all human beings are equal before the law and are entitled to equal protection of the law against any discrimination and against any incitement to discrimination"

If European Caucasians campaign against their genocide, destruction of their culture and destruction of their nation they are labelled as racist. When they disagree openly with affirmative action and bussing (sending white children to black schools and black children to white schools) this is considered racism and bigotry. The United Nations laws are again broken in this area.

Citizens Initizens Referendums(CIR)

Political parties do not represent people's rights, so the people should  start  promoting (CIR) Citizens Initizens Referendums,  and start to represent themselves. Switzerland  in Europe has CIR.

How parliamentary elections work in Switzerland

The Coverers League collects information about history, on Globalism and relationships etc, so people can obtain the information quickly.  The main articles usually remain and over time they are change by adding more information to them. 


Please check the following articles

 White European Racial Pride.   What Race Are You ?

White European Racial Pride. What Race Are You ?

 Alternative News Sites

Alternative News Sites

White History, Music, Wars, Dances and Film Archives

White History, Music, Wars, Dances and Film Archives

 Whites Fight Back Against  Racism & Bigotry

Whites Fight Back Against Racism & Bigotry

White Organization: Bloc & Generation Ide…

Genocide Whites & all Races

White Indigenous Rights

Promoting Large Families

Lauren Southern on South Africa: FARMLANDS (Are Whites History?)


New World Order Globalist

The European Holocaust


Media Ownership: The Illusion of Choice

White Women Fighting For Our Rights & Women's Organizations

White Women Fighting For Our Rights & Wom…

Fighting Genocide Worldwide


Bankers Control the World

 White Organizations: European Community Based Organizations

White Organizations: European Community Based Organizations

Citizens Initizens Referendums ( CIR ) in Switzerland

Citizens Initiative Referendas ( CIR ) For We the People



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