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The Scythians Update 4.

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The Schytians never ever disapeard we The Bulgarians, Hungarians, Russians and many White Europeans all over the World are their children.

Case studyOpinionProfileAncient girl Amazon warrior no older than 13 is confirmed by modern scientific techniques


Ancient girl Amazon warrior no older than 13 is confirmed by modern scientific techniques

By Anna Liesowska
16 June 2020

Warrior’s grave found in 1988 was identified as male - yet now the 2,600-year-old teenager 'with wart on face’ is revealed to be female.

‘It was so stunning when we just opened the lid and I saw the face there, with that wart, looking so impressive.’ Pictures: Vladimir Semyonov, M.O. Mashezerskaya

The 'stunning' discovery appears further confirmation of ancient Greek claims about female fighters known as Amazons among the Scythians of central Asia. 

In 1988 Dr Marina Kilunovskaya and Dr Vladimir Semyonov came across the partially mummified young warrior’s grave Saryg-Bulun in Siberia’s modern-day Tuva republic during an emergency excavation. 

The archeologists found the prepubescent warrior’s remains so well preserved that a ‘wart’ was visible on the face, and yet at the time there were no indications that this was a female.


The Amazon warrior is from the period 7 - early 6 centuries BC, with the current best assessment that she died around 2,600 years ago. 

The depth of her coffin - hollowed from a single piece of wood -  was little over half a metre under the ground, oriented to the southwest.

Aside from Herodotus, Greek physician Hippocrates - who lived approximately from  460 BC to 370 BC - noted female warriors among the Sarmatians, a Scythian grouping famed for their mastery of mounted warfare.


Arrows and shifts

The adolescent Amazon had a choice of arrows - two were wooden, one had a bone tip, and the arrowheads of the rest were bronze. Pictures: A.Yu. Makeeva/Stratum plus, No 3, 2020

'Their women, so long as they are virgins, ride, shoot, throw the javelin while mounted, and fight with their enemies,' he wrote. 

'They do not lay aside their virginity until they have killed three of their enemies, and they do not marry before they have performed the traditional sacred rites. 

'A woman who takes to herself a husband no longer rides, unless she is compelled to do so by a general expedition.'


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The Schytians never ever disapeard we The Bulgarians, Hungarians, Russians and many White Europeans all over the World are their children.

The Scythians - The Mounted Warriors of Antiquity (The Amazons) - Great Civilizations of the Past

Why are all the depictions of these people in this video European (particularly White European) in appearance,  with white skin, red, brown, blond hair, blue and brown eyes. You see more of these features in their descendants today in Russia.

Scythians looked like Northern Europeans Scythians were blond/red haired blue eyed White people FROM "In artworks, the Scythians are portrayed exhibiting European traits.[128] In Histories, the 5th-century Greek historian Herodotus describes the Budini of Scythia as red-haired and grey-eyed.[128] In the 5th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates argued that the Scythians have purron (ruddy) skin.[128][129] In the 3rd century BC, the Greek poet Callimachus described the Arismapes (Arimaspi) of Scythia as fair-haired.[128][130] The 2nd century BC Han Chinese envoy Zhang Qian described the Sai (Scythians) as having yellow (probably meaning hazel or green), and blue eyes.[128] In Natural History, the 1st century AD Roman author Pliny the Elder characterizes the Seres, sometimes identified as Iranians (Scythians) or Tocharians, as red-haired and blue-eyed.[128][131] In the late 2nd century AD, the Christian theologian Clement of Alexandria says that the Scythians are fair-haired.[128][132] The 2nd century Greek philosopher Polemon includes the Scythians among the northern peoples characterized by red hair and blue-grey eyes.[128] In the late 2nd or early 3rd century AD, the Greek physician Galen declares that Sarmatians, Scythians and other northern peoples have reddish hair.[128][133] The fourth-century Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus wrote that the Alans, a people closely related to the Scythians, were tall, blond and light-eyed.[134] The 4th century bishop of Nyssa Gregory of Nyssa wrote that the Scythians were fair skinned and blond haired.[135] The 5th-century physician Adamantius, who often follow Polemon, describes the Scythians are fair-haired."


The Scythians are generally have been of Iranian (or Iranic; an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group) origin, They spoke a language of the Scythian branch of the Iranian languages, and practiced a variant of ancient Iranian religion. IMPORTANT NOTE The timeline history of Turkic people does not coincide with scythians anywhere in the history. According Assyrian inscriptions from the 7th century BC it clearly refers assyrians fighting Scythians and Medes, but during the same 7th century BC Turks were busy in forming Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate in Xixiang,china. So, according to historical dates it is very clear that turks had not arrived in central-east asia where scythians have already had presence there and more importantly Assyrians scripts made no mention of turkic people anywhere in their entire history.


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Ancestors to German Slavs and Celts

Philip Thomas

Tocharian mummies in western China and Chinese eyewitness accounts state Genghis Khan and sons were tall heavily bearded redheads with grey eyes Scythian stock

Dmitriy Turko

In Russian Kurgan means hill burials


Scythians, and many other warrior tribes congregated, and bred in the Punjab region. Made for a pretty interesting warrior culture namely the Sikhs. A video on them would be interesting!

 Cj Khis

It's hard to have a clear picture of people which didn't left any writings of themselves. Most of the history of nomadic people was written by their enemies and have a clear bias against them

sachin vapilkar

Fun fact: Hindu calendar (Saka calendar) came after king Vikramaditya defeated Scythian and they integrated in indian society that's why same punjabi have iranic surname.

Michał Salamon

I think its dissapointment when author calls the scythian customs as sadistic. Brutal, maybe, but cruel, doubt they were doing ot just for kicks, they had to have a reason to do that stuff.
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 simeon simeonov
Scythians can be easily explained in Bulgarian language! The verb 'skitam'(скитам) means exactly wandering, constantly moving most probably because they were cattle and horse breeders! The noun 'skitnik' (скитник) means a person that is constantly moving and have no regular place to stay! This way of leaving was a traditional Bulgarian way of breeding herds of sheeps, during the winter they were bringing them to the warm Mediterranean and during Spring they were bringing them back to the mountains in Bulgaria! Not anymore in use because of the frontiers! So finally in Bulgarian language Scythians means people that are constantly moving with no fixed place to stay!

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Gabriel Orosz
Numbered Scythian and Sarmatian wars are described in Roman empire . Fighting amazon women are mentioned in Volga region towards Black Sea .Neigbour Sarmatas considered animals to beeings with soul similar to us as they are in reality .
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The Greek historian Herodotus refers to the European Scythians as Scythians and the eastern ones as Sacae.

The Sacae tribes that migrated to India (called Saka in India) have descendants in the the Jat tribes of North India and Pakistan.

 Persian Warrior
ALANS, an ancient Iranian tribe of the northern (Scythian, Saka, Sarmatian, Massagete) group, known to classical writers from the first centuries A.D. (see, e.g., Seneca, Thyestes 630; Annaeus Lucan, Pharsalia 8.223, 10.454; Lucian, Toxaris 51, 54, 55, 60; Ptolemy, Geographia 6.14.3, 9, 11; and other sources below). Their name appears in Greek as Alanoi, in Latin as Alani or Halani. The same tribes, or affiliated ones, are mentioned as the Asaioi (Ptolemy 5.9.16), Rhoxolanoi, Aorsoi, Sirakoi, and Iazyges (Strabo 2.5.7, 7.2.4; 11.2.1, 11.5.8; 7.2.4). In early times the main mass of the Alans was settled north of the Caspian and Black seas. Later they also occupied the Crimea and considerable territory in the northern Caucasus.
The history of the Alans can be divided into three periods: (1) from the beginning of the Christian era to the great migration of peoples; (2) from that period to the Mongol invasion; (3) subsequent to the Mongol invasion. During the first period, the Alans appear as a nomadic, warlike, pastoral people who were professional warriors and took service, at various times, with the Romans, Parthians, and Sasanians. Their cavalry was particularly renowned. They participated in Mithridates’ wars with Rome (chronicled by Lucan), as well as in Roman campaigns in Armenia, Media, and Parthia in the 1st and 2nd centuries A.D. (see Josephus, Jewish Wars 7.244-51, Antiquities 18.97; cf. accounts in Moses of Khoren, History of the Armenians [Langlois, Historiens II, pp. 105-06, 125] and the Georgian Chronicle [Kartlis tskhovreba, in M. F. Brosset and D. I. Chubinov, Histoire de la Georgie I, St. Petersburg, 1849]). Ammianus Marcellinus (31.2) describes the Alans’ nomadic economy and warlike customs.
The invasion of the Huns split the Alans into two parts, the European and the Caucasian. Some of the European Alans were drawn into the migration of peoples from eastern into western Europe. With the Germanic tribes of Visigoths and Vandals they passed into Gaul and Spain, some even reaching North Africa. The Alans fought on the side of the Romans in the battle of the Catalaunian Fields (A.D. 451), when Aetius defeated Attila, chief of the Huns. In 461 and 464 they made incursions into Italy. After Attila’s death they struggled, together with the Germanic tribes, to free themselves from Hun domination. Large Alan hordes settled along the middle course of the Loire in Gaul under King Sangiban and on the lower Danube with King Candac (the historian Jordanes sprang from the latter group). Another settlement is indicated by the name of the Spanish province Catalonia, which is but a slight deformation of Goth-Alania, “province of the Goths and Alans.” The French proper name “Alain” and English “Alan” are an inheritance from the tribe. The Alans also left an imprint on Celtic folk-poetry, e.g., the cycle of legends concerning King Arthur and his knights of the Round Table (see M. Hesse, “Iranisches Sagengut im Christlichen Epos,” Atlantis 1937, pp. 621-28; J. H. Grisward, “Le motif de l’épée jetée au lac: la mort d’Arthur et la mort de Batradz,” Romania 90, 1969, pp. 289-340). Part of the European Alans remained in the lands bordering the Black Sea, including the Crimea.
The Caucasian Alans occupied part of the Caucasian plain and the foothills of the main mountain chain from the headwaters of the Kuban river and its tributary, the Zelenchuk (in the west), to the Daryal gorge (in the east). They became sedentary and took to cattle-breeding and agriculture. Towns developed, elements of state organization appeared, and political and cultural ties were established with Byzantium, Georgia, Abkhazia [see Abḵāz], the Khazars, and Russia. Dynastic marriages were concluded with these countries. From the 5th century on, Christian propaganda was conducted, first by Byzantine, later also by Georgian, missionaries. The Alans adopted Christianity in the 10th century, and an Alan episcopal see was created.
In 244/857 Boḡā, a general of the caliph of Baghdad, invaded Transcaucasia and the northern Caucasus, devastating Georgia, Abkhazia, the Alan country, and the Khazar lands. The Alans soon recovered, however, and restored their state. They are often mentioned by medieval writers, both western (Procopius of Caesarea, Menander, Theophanes of Byzantium, Constantine Porphyrogenitus) and Arab and Persian. The latter use the name “Alān” or “Ās”; and in Russian chronicles and Hungarian sources the form “Yas” is found. In the 4th/10th century the Arab historian Masʿūdī indicates that the Alan kingdom stretched from Daghestan to Abkhazia. He describes its prosperity: “The Alan king (can) muster 30,000 horsemen. He is powerful, very strong and influential (among?) the kings. The kingdom consists of an uninterrupted series of settlements; when the cock crows (in one of them), the answer comes from the other parts of the kingdom, because the villages are intermingled and close together” (trans. V. Minorsky, A History of Sharvan and Darband, Cambridge, 1958, pp. 156-60). The anonymous Ḥodūd al-ʿālam (trans. Minorsky, pp. 83, 161, 318, 445) describes Alania as a vast country with 1,000 settlements; the people included both Christians and idol-worshipers, mountaineers and plain-dwellers. The text makes the important statement that, in the north, the Alans bordered on the Hungarians and the Bulgars (the ancestors of the Chuvash). In the east they gave their name to the Daryal gorge, called “Gate of the Alans” (Arabic Bāb al-Lān, Persian Dar-e Alān, hence Daryal).
The Mongol invasion of the 7th/13th century and Tamerlane’s wars in the 8th/14th proved fatal to the Alan state. Its organization was destroyed, and the population suffered heavy loss. Ebn al-Aṯīr reports: “The Tatars attacked the Alans; they massacred them, committed many outrages, plundered and seized prisoners, and marched on against the Qipchaqs” (XII, p. 252; for the events of 1221 A.D., see Camb. Hist. Iran V, p. 311). The remnants of the Alans broke up into three groups. One retreated into the foothills and gorges of the central Caucasus and lives there up to the present [see Ossetes], numbering some 400,000. The people of their eastern branch call themselves “Ir”, those of the western branch “Digor.” The name “Alan” survives among them, in the form “Allon”, only in folklore. (Russian “Osetiny” is from Georgian Oseti, “Alania.” The Georgians had long called the Alans Os- or Ovs- and their country Oset-.) A second group of Alans migrated with the Qipchaqs (Comani) into Europe, settling in Hungary. The territory they occupied is to this day called Jászság, “province of the Yas;” and its capital is Jászberény. They preserved their language and ethnic identity until the 15th century, but gradually adopted the Hungarian language and became assimilated. The third group took service under the Mongol khans. According to the Chinese chronicle Yuan-shi, these “Asu” played an important role in further Mongol expansion. The Catholic missionary John de Marignolli, who spent five years in China, states that there were up to 30,000 Ās there (H. Yule, Cathay and the Way Thither III [Hakluyt Society, second ser., no. 37], London, 1914, pp. 180ff.). In the course of time they perished in warfare or were absorbed into the local population.
The name “Alan” is derived from Old Iranian *arya-, “Aryan,” and so is cognate with “Īrān” (from the gen. plur. *aryānām). The ancient Alan language may, to some extent, be reconstructed on the basis of modern Ossetic (after excluding the latter’s Turkic and Caucasian additions). The Alans created no writing, and no texts survive in their language except an inscription in Greek letters on a tombstone from the headwaters of the Kuban (Grund. Iran. Phil. I, Anhang, p. 31). A few sentences are recorded by the Byzantine author Tzetzēs (Gerhardt, “Alanen und Osseten,” pp. 37-51). Various personal, ethnic, and place names are also known (see M. Vasmer, Die Iranier in Südrussland, Leipzig, 1923, pp. 25-29). This material at least indicates clearly the Iranian character of the Alan language.
 Sarah Gray
I'm mostly Scottish. I knew there was extensive trade and interbreeding between the Celts and the Scythians. Their goldsmithing techniques and styles are very similar to ours were at the same period, and we share a love of horses. In fact, of the Scythians Herodotus said "They are kindlier to their mounts than they are to people, and count them as part of their family." That describes my elder sister, who is completely horse mad!
SetMind InMotion
Interesting connection with the Scythian and Scot...Possibly, but I thought 'Slav' was derived from Scythian, and the Scythians were the Indo-European people inhabiting the area you show in the map, who were then conquered by Vikings, who assimilated the Scythians into the modern Slavic populations.
 Matthijs van Guilder
Was it Herodotus who wrote that Scythian women had to kill three enemy before they were married?
Sukhraj Sandhu
I’m a jatt sikh from northern India...all jatts are descendants of Scythians
Hay Hay Hay
Go to Punjab and look at the Sikhs dress gold jewellry horsemanship there you will find scythians
Richard Tatarek
The Skittles were a tribe of hunts! The Hun federation consisted of 64 tribes, they were one of the people. The apparel, ornaments, weapons were clear and the runic writing was known, it was the oldest, still existing writing in the present history.
Golden man who was shown in this video was found in Kazakhstan near the city of Issyk, and is called Altyn adam in kazakh
The Alans who lived on the mouth of the Volga were also horse warriors like the Sythians.It is said they were tall and blond yet nothing on Youtube about them.White Tartars lived in Crimea. There were other peoples on the steppes.They were all free peoples not like the feudal peasants in Western Europe who were virtually slaves to kingdoms.

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Scythians - Rise and Fall of the Original Horselords DOCUMENTARY

kunio ishida

According to Herodotus, there was a strong Scythian to the east of the Altai Mountains. Perhaps they advanced to the Mongolian plateau in BC. Then they continued to move eastward, reaching the northern side of the Yellow River, and later mixed blood and became Xiongnu. Because the sword and armor of Xiongnu are similar to those of Scythians. Of course, the Scythians would have attacked and plundered nomads living in Mongolia and northern China in the process. "I love horses, plunder, and enjoy them," because they are the Scythian way of life. When the Xiongnu weakened, the Chinese slaughtered people with big eyes and noses, that is, people with faces similar to Caucasians, so they must have been very afraid.

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Great work as usual, but I am a bit disappointed that you mentioned the campaign of Darius against Scythians in 513 so briefly. It is told in in Herodotus' fourth book of his Histories and is just full of amazing stories: how the Scythians walked the Persian army through the whole steppe, how they humiliated Darius with their bold answers, and how the Greeks who were left to guard the bridge over the Danube were arguing with each other whether they should destroy the bridge and thus doom the Persians to starvation in the endless steppe. Maybe this campaign deserves a video on it's own from you guys?


The primary sources are all entirely unreliable and the history of the Scythians are almost entirely speculative - given that the primary sources are all Greeks and are essentially uncorroborated. "Scythian" was just a designation by the Greeks for all steppe nomads. Even Herodotus (famously fast and loose with his historiography, earning him the nickname "father of lies") admits how vague the knowledge of them are. All of these contemporary sources rely on hearsay and 2nd or 3rd party sources. Archaeology on the other hand gives us the best guess at who the "Scythians" actually were - it is very much likely that there were multiple different cultures, confederations and peoples that were all designated by Greeks as "Scythians" given the diversity and variety of the distinct cultures that have surfaced in the region for the time period. Historians have traditionally been - and many still are - obsessed with retroactively categorising steppe peoples and cultures to fit western conceptual categories. This leads to a lot of arbitrary labelling (such as "Turkic" and "Mongolic") which does not align well with the fluid and osmotic nature of early steppe nomadic cultures and identities.

 james hutchisson

Cimmerians were the first mounted archers. Preceding the Scythians by several hundred years.

 Noah Tyler Pritchett

One of the Hebrew Kings are said to of married a Scythian princess.
D66 H
Even Alexander of Macedonia were unable to conquer their land as they smashed all his armies
 Oghuzsak Toqquzsak
I am a Uyghur. Scythians (Sakas) are one of our many ancestors that migrated and settled in the Tarim basin. As always, this video is very well researched and very informative.
Hyper Voreian
Excellent video. So many good points and questions aris from scythian history. According to greek modern writers and their analyseis though:
1.Scythian armed population was very low aprox 30k men.
2.The Masagetae and othe tribes were paying tribute to royal Scythians. Meaning from Kimmerian straits to borders of china it was one state. When Alexander the great battle and defeat the Scythian allies of Spitamenes, an embassy arived from the royal scythians with apologies and said their brethren doings were actions of thieves and did not represented Scythian state.
3.Persians invaded again Scythia from the balcan rout prior to greece invasion. Persians established forts as deep as northern romania.
4. Scythian tombs were found in eastern germany. The scythians definitelly at one point reached central europe.
5. The greek settlements in Krimea were in war originally with the scythians and accomodated kimmerian refugees. The greek setlements were made in ground unsuited for cavalry warfare of the Scythians.
6.Battle of thatis river is of paramount importance cause it gives numbers of soldiers of Scythian state and their sarmatian adversaries.
7.Scythian and prior to them Kimmerians tried repeatedly to advance south into balcans but were checked realtively easy by the thracians. The balcans before roman conquest and later "feudalization" were able to produce enormous numbers of men that were fighting in a way unsuited for nomads. Skirmishes and querilla warfare with noumerous strong forts in the atop of mountains as retreat points.
8. Nomad warfare did not made impression at that time to the greeks. Armoured disciplined infantry was nearly completely immune to horse archer armies. examples: the two-three hour mounted archer volley of the persians and platea one day before the battle. Victories by Alexander and Philip against noumerous and strong nomad forces. Agaisnt Ateas and Spitamenes. in both clashes the nomads were caught of guard by a combo of light infantry and heavy cavalry. Dont ask me how :/ what is the sources tell.
9.when saka invaded india the archaelogical record shows decrease in scythian presence in krimea. far feteched it could be the same people leaving Kimmeria and invading India.
10. Greeks consider the Scythians indivindualy the best warriors ever.
11. Scythians valued the human skin and decorated thier horses with them....
12. Scythian way of warfare is practically the same with the mongols later. Horse archer with heavily armoured horse lancers.
13. Name of scythian weapons; Sword=Akinaka Axe=Sagaris Lance=Kontos Bottom line the Scythians are underated . They had immense mobility and left traces from eastern germany to jericho to borders of china. And their presence in history persisted for almost 1500 years of which for 600 years were the dominant force. Way more than the mongols or others.
 Aaron Marks
I'm glad you guys touched on language! Yep, the last modern remnant of the Scythian language(s) is indeed the modern Ossetian language of the Caucasus. It is spoken in the Russian republic of North Ossetia-Alania, and just over the Caucasus crest to the south in the breakaway South Ossetia region of Georgia.
A related linguistic relic is the minority Yaghnobi language of parts of modern Tajikistan. It is the last surviving form of the ancient and medieval Bactrian and Sogdian languages, including the language of the Khwarazmian Empire.
The best part about the Scythians legend, it gave birth to the even longer lasting legend of the Amazon Warriors. Like most Nomadic based confederations they left a short lasting foothold in history (The Mongols and Huns are the exception).

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  Where now it is possible to find Scythians?

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 Allan Nielsen

Scythians came from the ten tribes of Israel one of the tribes, was the tribe of Dan. They continuely named places after them. Danzig, Donau and Danmark. I am a dane living in Danmark. As prophecied they forgot there God and who they were, When they drove out of captivity in Assyria. The ten tribes conquered the Europe and Abraham became ancestor to many tribes as prophecied in the Bible. Today jews are most Khazars converted to the Babylonian talmud in 642. The Khazars ancestor was Esau or Edom.




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Horse Lords: A Brief History of the Scythians

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Striking similarity to the standing stones and burial mounds all over North Western Europe.

 Robert Paulson

lmao everyone is trying to claim the Scythians as their own ancestors.
Peter the Great is unexpected hero here. We're so lucky he decided to save so many of those finds. Brillaint video by the way. Can't wait to see more.
Polish nobility in middle ages often claimed it's roots from Sarmatians. Sarmatians were western Scythians.
 Zoe Porphyrogenita
Our dating system (BC/AD) was devised by Dionysius Exiguus, a Scythian monk.
John Stewart
I may have fallen for lore, not fact, but I read: the Scythians were never conquered by Darius nor Alexander. The latter signed a treaty with them, and referred to them as The Royal Scythians. they invented the pottery wheel, and the double-bellows that enabled them to be among the first to work iron. Greek historians wrote accounts of the vaping cannabis by throwing hemp seeds on heated rocks, then putting a blanket over themselves and the stones....”they came out howling and laughing....” They did seem highly religious, having the great white stag, who bore the celestial bodies on his antlers, and was the bringer of messages from God.
Jade Nephrite
Fierce Scythian women warriors are believed to be the inspiration of the Amazons.
 Bertil Faux
Bedes ecclesiastical history of England claims picts are descended from scythians...
I think you should extend your research further into classical sources. Both the Greeks and the Persians described the scythians as being blonde or red haired. Fair skinned with blue, gray or green eyes. The Greeks even described them as their more wild cousins. There is also a distinct difference between the Royal or what was called the "True" Scythians in the classical world and the rest. The Scythians also existed as a power since at least 1800bc, not 900. Constructive criticisms mate, excellent work though.
First of all it's just brilliant someone thinks of the Scythians! The whole world seems to forget about them although they were the strongest territory holders of their time: beating Darius I., Alexander the great... Also their close 'relatives' the Parthians beat the Roman empire.
 Alexandre TRICAUD
First horsemen warriors were the Yamnayas at 5000BC.

 What on Earth Happened to the Old Europeans? Pre-Indo-European History of Europe



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Scythians 2: Archaeology and Genetics


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Soslan Tebiev

famous scientists of Europe and America wrote that the descendants of the Scythians of the Sarmatians of the Alans are Ossetians. Ossetians speak the language of the Scythians, and preserved their culture and mentality

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Tagar Culture and Proto-Scythian Origins | DNA


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What on Earth Happened to the Old Indo-Europeans?

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